Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder

Identify a minimum of twelve potential triggers (craving stimulation) for Opioid Use
Disorder and coping skills for the identified triggers. While some coping skills may be
helpful for multiple triggers, this assignment requires each student to identify twelve
different coping skills. No coping skill should be duplicated for this assignment. The paper
is 6 pages, APA format, 12-point Times New Roman and includes a bibliography of
scholarly references. 15-20 high quality sources required – Only peer-reviews and reputable
books are required
.

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder

Reliance or addiction on opioids is a significant threat to public health; with it carries
serious social, medical, and financial consequences which include: lost profitability, criminal
activities, illnesses (HIV and hepatitis) and eve causes death in a number of people. Prolonged
utilization of any opioid either illicit or prescribed builds tolerance (Denis, 2019). This implies
that one has to take a greater amount of the substance to get the usual effect. Moreover, as a
person continues to utilize the drug the body gets reliant on it. This leads an individual to have
withdrawal signs and symptoms on the off chance that they quit taking the substance. There is
additionally mental reliance, otherwise termed as addiction (Eskandari et al, 2019). When
addiction kicks in most addicts tend to experience cravings or desires for opiates and cannot be
able to control their utilization and can also lead to the affected person to endanger themselves or
others. All these components can mean a person takes a greater amount of the opiate than
prescribed, which can prompt overdose (Clark, et al, 2015).

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder
Addicted persons deal with severe withdrawal symptoms and rates of relapse still remain
high. Recognizing psychosocial factors related with recovery is significant for illuminating on
behavioral recruitment management. A significant factor in dependence treatment is the
dysfunctional disorders (that is the foundation of mental issue) as an outcome of abstaining as it
they can bring about treatment failure (Heiwel, & Källménl, 2011). Numerous studies have
underscored the flare-up of mental issue, for example depression and anxiety attacks in patients
dependent on opiates. Changes in the pre-cortex territory of the brain facilitate opiate
consumption through the dopamine reward pathway to the patient and debilitate the quality of
maintaining opioid withdrawal. These progressions can clarify the presence of a serious craving
for consuming narcotics and continuing to take it notwithstanding its antagonistic impacts
(Eskandari et al, 2019). The neuro-adaptation in different zones of the frontal cortex assumes a
role in the incapacity to comprehend the outcomes of opioid abuse.
Triggers and coping skills
I). Stress
Opiates addicted persons are more helpless and are a greater risk of failing to cope with
stress than the rest of the population. The possible clarification for the above fact is that narcotics
raise levels of cortisol, a hormone that assumes an essential job in stress reactions; and cortisol,
thus, raises the degree of action in the mesolimbic reward framework (Preston, & Epstein, 2011).
Through these pathways, stress may add to the longing to consume opioids in any case and to
their subsequent impulse to continue taking them Moreover, most of the people who find
themselves as addicts started their opiate intake as a method for adapting and coping with stress
events and hardships in their lives. Results from a study show that stress had critical positive

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder
associations with current evaluations of cravings for cocaine, heroin, and tobacco and with
ratings of tiredness, weariness, and disturbance. Also it had huge negative associations to an
individual’s happiness and productivity (Preston, & Epstein, 2011).
Regardless, of whether it’s a terribly busy and stressful working day, monetary
shortcomings, being extremely pressurized or encountering relationship hang-ups, the pressure
instigated by different occurrences can lead somebody to self-cure with opioid medications. This
makes the pressure of an extremely basic backslide trigger for individuals in recuperation (Denis,
A. M. (2019). In this way, it’s basic for those in recuperation to learn interchange methods for
managing pressure, for example, controlled breathing, meditation, and even routine exercises,
practices that can help free or vent sentiments of stress, or utilizing imagination as an outlet
(Schuckit, 2016). There are numerous ways for people to manage pressure and hardship without
depending on reckless propensities such as counseling and strictly monitored drug therapies. It’s
additionally a smart thought, to discover approaches to dispose of the quantity of things
throughout one’s life that cause pressure so one has less worry to confront.
II). Emotional Triggers
The range of human emotional spectrum varies from person to person. Moreover,
individuals will in general cycle through feelings relatively fast, encountering a few unique
sentiments or dispositions during each time as a reaction to conditions and contemplations
(Eskandari et al, 2019). While numerous feelings are positive ones and would not really be
unsafe, there are numerous feelings that opioids users come to connect with while under the
influence of opiates. This regularly incorporates such feelings or emotions as dissatisfaction,
disarray, stress, dread, outrage, and depression among others (Bart, 2012).

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder
At the point when persons use substances as a method for dealing with stress for their
feelings, they are really utilizing opiates to abstain from encountering these horrendous feelings
by any stretch of the imagination. Essentially, substance misuse turns into an approach to numb
oneself inwardly. Along these lines, encountering these feelings in recuperation can frequently
trigger solid longings and desires to utilize. Nevertheless, there are various approaches to
successfully process or adapt to negative feelings (Modesto-Lowe et al, 2017). Conversing with
close relative or companion about one’s sentiments can be a compelling method to free
unexpressed feelings. On the other hand, an individual should seriously think about journaling
their feelings as a method for venting terrible or extraordinary emotions, to adapt, a feeling must
be permitted to run its course, be tended to and in the long run disperse (Schuckit, 2016).
III). Guilt and Shame
Like other emotional triggers, sentiments of blame and disgrace are normal reasons why
people go to narcotic abuse in a number of cases. Guilt and disgrace are related with lost sense of
pride, deliberate isolation and rejection, misery, or hostility, and shame (Mattoo, Chakrabarti, &
Anjaiah, 2009). Furthermore, it’s been discovered that opioid users and addicts who are causing
to feel disgrace or blame really become bound to keep on relapsing to opiate substances and
frequently increasing the measure of opioids intake. Sentiments of guilt and shame cause low
self-esteem, making affecting persons feel like they have little motivation to try and trouble
attempting to stop opioid abuse (Volkow, 2014).
While sentiments of guilt and disgrace can be hard to survive, there are various
techniques one can utilize to conquer them. One of the best approaches to beat such emotions is
by offering back to those who are disadvantaged in society. Particularly around the special

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder
seasons such as Christmas and thanksgiving, giving one’s time by chipping in at a neighborhood
soup kitchen or offering blessings to a close by kids’ toy drive can give an individual the sort of
warm emotions that accompany having a beneficial outcome in others’ lives. Also, an individual
may attempt to discover some sort of goals or presently appropriate solutions in light of their
source of guilt and shame (Wheeler, 2012).
IV). Places and People
Most of opiate users will come to relate certain individuals, locations, or even encounters
with narcotics and other substances utilization while actively reliant or addicted to opioids. At
the point when people in recuperation are presented with individuals and spots they partner with
their past substance misuse, research shows that they can start to encounter extraordinary
cravings for opiates, which puts an intense strain on their capacity to stay abstinent and calm.
(Preston et al, 2009). The most ideal approach is to keep away from these sorts of triggers is to
just sidestep them, avoiding places where one had recently gone to mishandle opioid drugs and
from the individuals with whom one recently consumed the substance with. However, it turns out
to be a lot simpler to evade these triggers as one fuses the evasion of specific individuals and
spots into their everyday life (Rosenblum et al, 2008).
V). Mental and Physical illness
Mental instability tendencies such anxiety, depression, and other hidden dysfunctional
behaviors can trigger opioid cravings and relapse. Unmanaged physical disease and pain can
likewise put one in danger of backsliding, as one’s body is experiencing stressful events. Also
prescribed drugs for mental and physical ailments can be mind-adjusting and trigger cravings
and dependence backslide (Mattoo, Chakrabarti, & Anjaiah, 2009). An affected person sharing

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder
their challenges during recuperation with the assigned physician or counselor and being
persistent on consuming non-addictive prescribed medication significantly improves the outcome
A study suggests that combination of buprenorphine and naloxone help reduce the use of opioid
and craving for opioid use (Clark et al 2015).Getting treatment for any hidden dysfunctional
behavior and going through one’s reasoning and feelings with a diary to help notice when one is
slipping into old habits.
VI). Sex and Relationships
A typical, yet regularly overlooked recommendation is to abstain from dating in
recuperation within the first year. There are numerous explanations behind this, one being that
new sentimental connections can put you in danger of relapsing. A separation with your new
companion could lead a person back to abuse because of enthusiastic pressure. A potential
traverse from one’s underlying dependence on a sex or love fixation; or utilizing connections to
fill the void left by sobriety expands the risk for backslide ( Savage et al, 2003). A person should
remind himself/herself why it is essential to stay away from connections in early recuperative
stages and if a person has been sober for more than a year then take one step at a time in the
dating scene so as not to disrupt a person’s recovery by triggering emotionally stressful events
(Schuckit, 2016).
VII). Professional success
Positive life occasions are frequently disregarded as relapse triggers. Getting an
advancement or new position can prompt a desire to celebrate. One may fall into the bogus
thought of celebrating with an opioid with the self-conviction ‘simply this once’ will be alright.
(Heiwel, & Källménl, 2011). An expanded salary can likewise trigger considerations of having

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder
the option to bear the cost one’s abuse. While advancement or other positive occasions can be
energizing and it can also support one’s certainty, and might add to an individual’s stress. That is
the reason it is critical to make an arrangement for how one will celebrate without any opioids,
ahead of time (Savage et al, 2003).
VIII).Social Isolation
Hesitance to engage with others can prompt social disengagement leading one to be
prone to loneliness. The more one becomes socially disengaged the simpler it is to relapse and
crave for opioids (Clark et al, 2105). Anxiety in social spaces is a battle for some recuperating
patients that is why it is advisable to have support groups or close friends to fall back on. Also
the affected persons ought to engage in activities such as deep breathing and playing nerve-
calming games such as video games to take the anxiety (Whitmarsh, 2008).
IX). Being over-confident
While believing in yourself during recuperation is something to be thankful for, turning
out to be too sure can be a potential trigger and lead to a backslide, the same number overlook
the significance of their recuperation plan. It is anything but difficult for one to vanquish their
fixation as the everyday battles of temperance appear to diminish yet advising one that you are as
yet powerless to triggers can go far in proceeded with moderation (Wheeler et al, 2012).
Remaining in contact with one’s support system or specialist, going to customary gatherings and
remaining humble about one addiction are basic to an existence of temperance. However if one
end’s up getting careless or feeling uncertain over one’s drug reliance consider tutoring
somebody who is fresher in their way to recuperation and self-advise that remaining calm
requires a cognizant day by day exertion (Denis, 2019).

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder
X). HALT: Hungry, Angry, Lonely, and Tired
The abbreviation HALT is utilized to depict high-hazard circumstances for those in
recuperation. At the point when one knows about this then it is possible to be careful in keeping
themself from exposing one to those states (Preston et al, 2009). If recuperating is an individual’s
responsibility, it is important to ensure one abstains from getting excessively eager, irritated,
desolate, or tired and might end craving for opioids. Hence the need for one have supportive
friends or groups so as to easy coping, also the affected persons a can enroll in mental relaxing
activities such as walks and hikes (Wheeler et al, 2012).
XI) Internet Usage
Technology has revolutionized life in different aspects. There various internet sites
where one get access to opioids and also link up with individuals that still use the substances. For
recuperating individuals it highly recommended for them to evade such as site as they may end
up relapsing (Clark et al, 2015).
XII). Genetic Predisposition
Though this is not a common narrative, some studies show that opioid use in a family
could predispose one to opiate use and subsequently relapsing when one aims at abstain from
substance use. While this trigger fact is not well studied, it tends to manifest in persons who have
a long family history of opioid exposure (Schuckit, 2016). To curb the craving that comes with
triggering factor is for one to distance themselves from any environment or persons that increase
the risk of access opiates and surround oneself with positive people and situations.

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder

References

Bart, G. (2012). Maintenance medication for opiate addiction: the foundation of recovery.
Journal of addictive diseases, 31(3), 207-225.
Clark, R. E., Baxter, J. D., Aweh, G., O’Connell, E., Fisher, W. H., & Barton, B. A. (2015). Risk
factors for relapse and higher costs among Medicaid members with opioid dependence or
abuse: opioid agonists, comorbidities, and treatment history. Journal of substance abuse
treatment, 57, 75-80.
Denis, A. M. (2019). Managing Opioid Use Disorder: The Nurse Practitioner Addressing the
Challenge. Medsurg Nursing, 28(5), 281-316.

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder
Eskandari, Z., Dadashi, M., Mostafavi, H., Armani Kia, A., & Pirzeh, R. (2019). Comparing the
Efficacy of Anodal, Cathodal, and Sham Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on
Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Psychological Symptoms in Opioid-addicted
Patients. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 10(6), 641-650.
Heiwel, S., Lönnquistl, I., & Källménl, H. (2011). Potential risk factors associated with risk for
drop‐out and relapse during and following withdrawal of opioid prescription medication.
European Journal of Pain, 15(9), 966-970.
Mattoo, S. K., Chakrabarti, S., & Anjaiah, M. (2009). Psychosocial factors associated with
relapse in men with alcohol or opioid dependence. Indian J Med Res, 130(6), 702-8.
Modesto-Lowe, V., Swiezbin, K., Chaplin, M., & Hoefer, G. (2017). Use and misuse of opioid
agonists in opioid addiction. Cleve Clin J Med, 84(5), 377-384.
Preston, K. L., & Epstein, D. H. (2011). Stress in the daily lives of cocaine and heroin users:
relationship to mood, craving, relapse triggers, and cocaine use. Psychopharmacology,
218(1), 29-37.
Preston, K. L., Vahabzadeh, M., Schmittner, J., Lin, J. L., Gorelick, D. A., & Epstein, D. H.
(2009). Cocaine craving and use during daily life. Psychopharmacology, 207(2), 291.
Rosenblum, A., Marsch, L. A., Joseph, H., & Portenoy, R. K. (2008). Opioids and the treatment
of chronic pain: controversies, current status, and future directions. Experimental and
clinical psychopharmacology, 16(5), 405.
Schuckit, M. A. (2016). Treatment of opioid-use disorders. New England Journal of Medicine,
375(4), 357-368.

Triggers and Coping Skills of Opioids Use Disorder
Savage, S. R., Joranson, D. E., Covington, E. C., Schnoll, S. H., Heit, H. A., & Gilson, A. M.
(2003). Definitions related to the medical use of opioids: evolution towards universal
agreement. Journal of pain and symptom management, 26(1), 655-667.
Volkow, N. D. (2014). America’s addiction to opioids: Heroin and prescription drug abuse.
Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, 14.
Wheeler, E., Davidson, P. J., Jones, T. S., & Irwin, K. S. (2012). Community-based opioid
overdose prevention programs providing naloxone—United States, 2010. MMWR.
Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 61(6), 101.
Whitmarsh, S. (2008). God’s own medicine: opioids, law and the health community.

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