Theoretical lens that underlies the study.

Using the six frameworks for mixed methods provided in the Hanson Article:
*Briefly describe the type of design used by Torres and the timing of the data collection.
*Briefly describe the theoretical lens that underlies the study.
*Briefly describe the data analysis procedures used in the study.
*Explain the rationale for using the mixed method in this study.

Briefly describe the type of design used by Torres and the timing of the data collection.
Torres used sequential transformative design. This design uses an advocacy lens that is
identified from the research questions, and the purpose statement. In this design, quantitative
data may be collected first and analysed, followed by quantitative data or quantitative data
collected first followed by qualitative data. Torres collected the qualitative data first. It was
analysed and then subjected to a different group of participants who rated the themes in order of
importance, providing quantitative data. The data was then analyzed using cultural consensus
The timing of the data collection was important as it came at a time of increased Latino
immigration to the U.S. the immigrants are faced with numerous challenges as they try to adapt
to the new culture which can become stressful and pose mental health risks. It was also important
to understand the Latino culture and how they cope with changes and not generalize them with
other cultures.

Briefly describe the theoretical lens that underlies the study.

Torres’ study sought to establish Latino intercultural competence by learning the skills
they see as necessary in adapting to other cultures while maintaining their ever changing one.
The theoretical lens in the study is ethnicity as it focuses on Latinos. The study participants are
all Latinos; males and females, first generation or subsequent generations with a wide age gap.
Their shared understanding of their culture is explored and their definition of success is
highlighted. Their association with members of other cultures, other members of their culture,
their family and interpersonal relationships are examined.
Briefly describe the data analysis procedures used in the study.

Qualitative data was collected from 15 participants from universities, and community
organizations in a Midwestern city. The purpose was to help in discovering and generating
themes regarding features of intellectual competence. The participants were issued with semi
structured interviews and allowed to elaborate on their experiences. The interviews were both
oral and written and since some participants choose Spanish as the preferred laguange, English
translations were made, word for word. Open coding was used and data was broken down into
identifiable events. The events were then grouped into concepts and later developed into
themes.The qualitative data was then analysed by a research team and 34 items developed.
The 34 items were subjected to a different group of 46 participants of different age, generation,
socio economic backgrounds and gender. This group rated the items according to their level of
importance based on a 5-point Likert scale. The responses provided quantitative data that was
subjected to the cultural consensus analysis. They were broken down into a dichotomous variable
indicating importance. ANTHROPAC, a software program was used to test for a shared cultural
model of Latino intercultural competence. The level of expertise in the individuals was then

calculated and finaly the coefficients produced were used to get the weighted mean on the
ratings. The scores were then considered to be the shared characteristics of Latino intercultural

Explain the rationale for using the mixed method in this study.

The mixed method is used to give a better understanding of issues that Latinos consider
important in helping them associate and be competent in other cultures. It was important in this
study to emphasize what Latinos consider important skills and characteristics in their culture.
The qualitative data was important as it provided the theme for quantitative data. Qualitative data
was necessary for understanding the common experiences of the participants while quantitative
data was useful in relating variables and analysis. If they had been used separately, the results
would not have brought out the emphasis placed by the participants in their responses. The
cultural consensus analysis helped the study further as it could use a small sample size.

Ambition and the desire to succeed were highly rated by the participants as important
components of cultural competence. Family relationships were also highly rated. Networking
and developing interpersonal relationships was also identified as an important aspect in cultural
competence. Latinos like other immigrants to the U.S., face many challenges and the participants
identified hard work and perseverance as very important. Although culture is ever changing,

most participants highly rated maintaining old Latino culture. Most participants did not agree
how important communication was. While others expressed the need to be competent in both
English and Spanish, others suggested being competent in English alone as sufficient. Being
involved in community activities also received a low consensus score.
Although it may be costly and time consuming and requires working in teams, mixed method
research is important as it provides a bigger view of issues (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003). This is
because it is based on the strengths of qualitative and quantitative data. It also provides a wider
scope and depth and corroboration of issues. In this study, understanding how acculturation may
predispose Latinos to mental health issues is corroborated by an understanding of the
competence skills required.



Tashakkori, A. and Teddlie, C. (2003) Sage Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and
Behavioral Research