You have probably noticed in your educational career that some people are very good at
remembering facts and therefore do well at tests that require memorization. Other
students, on the other hand, struggle with tests that require memorization. To
understand how memory works, this exercise will ask you to trace the memory system –
from the stimuli to long-term memory.
Use your text book and research from the Internet to learn the process of memory –
from beginning to end. Your description should include the following:
Identification and description of each step in the human memory model. As you
describe these steps, use an example to illustrate the process
Discussion of factors that enhance or impede information flow in each step of the
Explanation of proactive and retroactive interference and how you might counteract
their effects while studying in order to facilitate maximum retention via long-term
Explanation of other kinds of forgetting and a discussion of strategies that can improve
memory consolidation and retrieval
Submit this in the form of a 2 -3 page paper. You can use illustrations to demonstrate
the process. Be sure to document your references using the APA format.
For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course
materials. Please refer to the following multimedia course material(s)
Week 4 – Memory, Thinking, and Intelligence
Week 4 – Types of Memory
Week 4 – Learning and Memory
Week 4 – Learning, Thinking, and Memory
Please use the following guidelines for formatting your assignment.
Margins – set to one inch
Font – 12pt. Times New Roman, no bold, or underline
Title – center above the paper, 12 pt. font (Level A Heading), no bold, underline, or
Pagination – every page; consists of a header containing a short title for the paper and
page number placed in the upper right corner of the page
Line Spacing – double space all work including the References Page
Point-of-View – third person, objective; limit perspective to research; no personal
opinion or narrative
In-text citations – must conform to APA requirements
References list – must conform to APA requirements
Process of Memory
Memory is characterized with the ability of storing, encoding and recalling
information. Human memory is propelled by three main processes identifying with the
encoding information, storage of information and retrieval/recalling of the information.
Consolidation of the memory falls in the encoding of information and also in the storage of
PROCESS OF MEMORY 2
information. The neurology and physiology involved in the mental processes lender the
processes highly technical and complex.
The processes involved in the human memory enables people to interact with one
another and also with the environment (Baddeley, 2009). Taking an example of a classroom
setting, it has been noted that some students are good at facts and memorizing while others
are not. Processes of the memory enable human beings to store new information for a short
time or a long time and at the same time retrieve the memory (Neath & Surprenant, 2002).
There are different models used in explaining the memory processes; this paper use
stage model of memory in explaining the functioning and structure of the human memory.
Stage memory model was designed by Shiffrin and Atkinson in 1968 (Atkinson & Shiffrin,
1968). Stages involved in the stage memory model identify with sensory memory stage, short
term memory stage and the long term memory stage.
Sensory memory stage is part of the earliest phase, sensory information or stimuli
from the direct environment is stored in the human memory. In the sensory memory,
information is stored for half a second for information related with visual issues and three to
four seconds for information relating to auditory issues (Baddeley, 2009). Human only attend
to part of the sensory memory, which is then passed over to the short term memory stage; an
example, not everything that arrives to the sensory memory that is stored the choice of what
to be passed over to the short term memory varies with the individual.
Short term memory is also referred by the term active memory. This phase is
characterized with the information in which the human mind is willing to think about or
process. It is part of the conscious mind that involve information gathered by the sensory
memory (Neath & Surprenant, 2002). Information gathered in the short term memory stays
for seconds, and then the information is forgotten. Information attended by the human mind
moves to the next level known as the long term memory phase.
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Long term memory phase is characterized with storage of information for long terms.
It is also referred to as the unconscious or preconscious memory. The information can be
retrieved to the sensory memory to be applied if the need arises; it is outside the awareness of
individuals (Radvansky, 2010). An example, thinking or seeing a classroom building trigger
generation of information relating to studying, classes, socializing, examinations and time
management among other information. Maximum retention of information is made possible
through grouping of related information (Baddeley, 2009).
Decision making processes works under the influence of the long term memory. The
organization of the memory is structured in groups that allow individuals to retrieve
information and use it in making relevant information in solving problems. Information is
stored in groups or clusters (Radvansky, 2010). Taking an example of students, most people
remember things taught by the tutor through color, images, formulae and examples among
other ways. Students remember information through semantic network model.
The external environment triggers human brain to remember memories that are
associated with the stimuli. Memories in a certain place may make individuals remember
other issues that took place in that place.
Atkinson & Shiffrin. (1968). Human Memory.
Baddeley, A. D. (2009). Essentials of Human Memory (Cognitive Psychology). London:
Neath, I. & Surprenant, A. (2002). Human Memory. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
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Radvansky, G. A. (2010). Human Memory. London: Pearson.