The cost of developing cancer drugs

Provide a clear thesis statement.
Describe the economic issues.
Describe the special needs (e.g., health) of the population being served.
Describe the process (decisions, steps) involved in the program.
Explain the benefits of the program.
Include two (2) visuals that illustrated two (2) different claims.
Develop a coherently structured paper with an introduction, body, and conclusion.
Provide three (3) relevant and credible sources to support claims.

The cost of developing cancer drugs

Introduction
Cancer is also known as malignant neoplasm in medical terms. Cancer is caused by unregulated
and continued cell growth which divides and grows uncontrollably, and forms malignant tumors
that invade parts of the human body. It spreads to the other parts of the body via the lymphatic
system or the bloodstream. Benign tumors are a type of cancer with limited growth and doesn’t
invade or spread to the nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body.
Benign tumors grow gradually, their capsule are well-defined, are not invasive, and are
well differentiated, with low mitotic index that don’t metastasize. Benign tumors are named after
the tissues from which they are from that’s from fatty tissues are lipoma, from the brain glioma,
from the muscles leiomyoma and from joints chondroma.
Malignant tumors grow very rapidly, are not encapsulated, and are invasive and poorly
differentiated. They spread distantly i.e. metastasis, have a high mitotic index and have ability to

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grow immortally. Malignant tumors are also named after the tissues from which they are from.
Epi tumors are equal to carcinomas (adenocarcinoma and the basal cell carcinoma). Malignant
CT tumors are known as sarcomaschondrosarcoma, osteosarcome.
Describe the economic issues
Cancer treatment is one of the most expensive in almost all the diseases and medical
complications facing mankind in the 21 st century. The new innovative cancer management and
treatment practices currently cost up to $100,000 per year. Some of these expensive drugs are of
limited benefits to the patient and majority only add a few months or even weeks of survival. The
economic effect and impact of cancer care and treatment has been the subject of scrutiny because
of the expensive price tag attached to its treatment. The costs also vary and fluctuate in certain
cases. For instance cost systematic therapy for six months in the treatment of colorectal cancer
can cost $100 or even less for a dose of fluorouracil/leucovorin taken daily for 5days monthly
and $50,000 for a weekly dose of cetuximab. For generic drugs, their use is limited to some cases
of cancer treatment, in some cases they may result in complications as drugs with similar
efficacy may have very different side effects that may reduce the patient’s life span and quality
of life. (Roxanne, 2008)
Describe the special needs (e.g. Health) of the population being served
To serve the health of the population, thousands of new and well tested drugs are still being
researched and developed to treat and cure more complex diseases and medical condition. All
human beings, young or old, still rely greatly on the existence of research labs to develop new
drugs. To treat cancer on the general population the use of radiology and imaging are all critical

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3
in the treatment of cancer. Chemotherapy, hormonal therapy is also necessary in such treatment
of cancer. The population also needs the latest drugs being introduced in the market together
with an assurance of their safety.
Describe the process (decisions, steps) involved in the program
The steps taken during the development of drugs are many but the major seven are discussed
below. Preclinical research These are the first process where the researchers and scientist
determine the germs, bacteria or the viruses that cause specific conditions or diseases. The
scientist then breaks down the different composition and components of the disease being
researched. They then work out on a drug that will kill the causes of the diseases. These will be
followed by the drug experimental on animals to test its efficiency, safety and its general side
effects. After three and half years of preclinical research, the pharmaceutical company will apply
for an investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the FDA.
The second process is completed if the IND is approved by the FDA within a period of 30 days.
The trial on human beings begins in this stage. The next stage is the Phase 1 Trials where around
20 to 80 healthy volunteers are administered with the drug to sturdy its effects on human beings
and it takes about an year and if it’s successful it moves to phase 11. These phases involve
between 100 to 300 volunteers who will still be tested to establish proper dosages and it takes
two years. Phase 111 involves 1000 to 3000 volunteers who have the disease and the doctors will
monitor their progress after they have taken the drug. This stage confirms if the drug is effective
and safe. New drug application (NDA) is then filed after the successful testing of the drug and
later it goes to the approval stage where the drug will then be made available to the physicians.
Explain the benefits of the program

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The benefit of this program is to ensure the new drugs are effectively tested and their efficiency
is thoroughly monitored and confirmed before they are distributed to the market. The side effects
of the drugs in all aspects are checked and its effectiveness is also checked on other animals
other than human beings only.
Include two (2) visuals that illustrated two (2) different claims.
Cancer signs and symptoms. The location of cancer metastasis determines the symptoms of
cancer. When cancer begins it has no signs as it gathers mass around it and continues to grow or
ulcerates. The symptoms are generally distant effects of the cancer that are not directly related to
metastatic condition. They may include weight loss, fatigue, fever and changes to skin texture.
( Kleinsmith, 2006)
Radiation (radiation-induced cancer)
More than 10% of all invasive cancers are associated with radiation exposure; these include the
none/ ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation. A large majority of non invasive cancers are
not melanoma skin related cancers that are caused by non-ionizing ultraviolet radiation. Medical
imaging and radon glass are the major sources of ionizing radiation. Some people with certain
nevoid basal cell carcinoma and retinoblast are more likely to develop cancer when exposed to
radiation. Nuclear power plants have very little or no effect cancer.
Radiation (radiation-induced cancer)
More than 10% of all invasive cancers are associated with radiation exposure; these include the
none/ ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation. A large majority of non invasive cancers are

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5
not melanoma skin related cancers that are caused by non-ionizing ultraviolet radiation. Medical
imaging and radon glass are the major sources of ionizing radiation. Some people with certain
nevoid basal cell carcinoma and retinoblast are more likely to develop cancer when exposed to
radiation. Nuclear power plants have very little or no effect cancer. Dietary (diet and cancer)
While many nutritionists have argued on the reduced risk of developing cancer while on
particular diets, few have been able to prove these facts. The major habits that promote cancer
are excessive eating habits leading to obesity and alcohol consumption. A diet with low fruits
and vegetables with high red meat may contribute a little to the predisposing factors that cause
cancer. Studies have associated consumption of processed meat to an increased breast cancer,
cancer of the colon and the pancreatic cancer, a condition which could be due to the
contamination of meat cooked at high temperatures with carcinogens.
Dietary recommendations for a healthy living may include fresh vegetables, fruits, whole
grains and avoidance or reduced consumption of red meat and animal fat.

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Reference.
Holland, F. (2009). Holland-Frei cancer medicine. (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill
Medical.
Klein smith, L. (2006). Principles of cancer biology . Pearson Benjamin: Cummings.
Mukherjee, S. (2010). The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer . Simon and
Schuster.
Pazdur, R. et al. (2009). Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach . Cmp
United Business Media. (online at cancernetwork.com)
Tannock, Ian (2005). The basic science of oncology . McGraw-Hill Professional.
Manfred S. (2008). Encyclopedia of Cancer (4 Volume Set). Berlin: Springer. Olson,
James, S (1999). “10”. In Cameron, Lynne; Low, Graham. Researching
and applying metaphor. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Sulik, G. (2010). Pink Ribbon Blues: How Breast Cancer Culture Undermines
Women’s Health. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Stuart (2002). Bathsheba’s Breast: Women, Cancer and History.
Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ehrenreich, B. (2009). Bright-sided: How the Relentless Promotion of Positive Thinking
HasUndermined America. New York: Metropolitan Books. pp. 15–44.
Roxanne, N.

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