Informatics Evaluation and Outcomes and Effectiveness Research – Health Informatics and
Health informatics professionals participate in teams working toward implementing new
technologies in their healthcare organization. There is a need in the body of knowledge of
health informatics and information management for research studies to support the
effectiveness of utilizing health information technology (HIT), particularly as it impacts
clinical areas. Assessing the impact of HIT on patient care, clinical staff behaviors, work
flow, other processes within organizations, and outcomes related to all of these elements
require objective evidence that results from research.
Think about the components of research as it would apply to a clinically based study in
informatics. Consider how you could apply these concepts in the workplace to help grow
the body of knowledge.
For this task, you will select (one) health information technology area listed below:
- Clinical decision support
- Computerized physician order entry
- Computerized disease registries
- Consumer health information technology applications
- Electronic medical record systems
- Electronic prescribing
- Health information technology in small and rural communities
Task to be completed by the writer:
A. Provide a literature review of (five) sources that discuss the implementation of (one) of
the health information technologies listed in the introduction. Choose 1 topic from (1-7
B. Present a proposal of how to assess the effectiveness of your selected technology by doing
- Discuss how you would perform a needs assessment for the project.
- Discuss how you would formulate a research question.
- Explain how you would develop a hypothesis.
- Discuss the purpose of your research.
- Discuss what research method would best fit the situation.
- Explain what you would measure.
a. Explain your measurement methods.
- Explain the benefit of one data collection tool or technique you would use.
- Discuss how you would analyze the data you gather.
- Discuss how you would draw conclusions.
C. If you use sources, include all in-text citations and references in APA format.
Bibliography/Works Cited required for all sources used.
Informatics Evaluation and Outcomes and Effectiveness Research
Computerized physician order entry
INFORMATICS EVALUATION AND OUTCOMES 2
Computerized physician order entry denotes a process of entering medical instructions in
a computerized and electronic format. This information gets relayed to end users who carry out
the stipulated instructions. The physician in charge of hospitalized patients writes and transmits
orders and instructions to the departments in charge of the patient. In turn, these departments
carry out the orders as received. This procedure helps in the elimination of misunderstandings
that may arise between the physician and the departments due to handwriting issues (Morris,
Savelyich, Avery, Cantrill & Sheikh, 2005).
Prior to the use of the computerized physician order entry systems, physicians could write
down instructions to departments that had to oversee a patient. This process gave huge margins
of error arising, mainly, from handwriting issues. The ambiguity of instructions further added to
the confusion (Leapfrog Group, 2004). All these issues promoted the mistrust of the handwriting
system by patients and the affected families. This promoted a big challenge arising from the
numerous departments involved.
The coordination between the physician and the line departments presented a
cumbersome procedure, in that the same writing could go to each and every one of them. In case
of loss of the scrip containing the instructions, the patient could start all over again. At the end of
the exercise of medication, the instruction script could end up in tatters due to the many handlers
With the advent of the electronic physician data entry, issues arising from handwriting
were covered. There no longer arose misinterpretation or misinformation from physicians to the
involved departments (Connolly, 2005). The problem of multiple handling the same script of
INFORMATICS EVALUATION AND OUTCOMES 3
instructions by many departments was solved, in that; the same instructions could now get
electronically relayed to the involved departments.
The entry of computer literate physicians promoted the introduction, and subsequent use,
of the computerized physician order entry. Further, according to Smith (2013), the economic
benefits of the computerized system promoted the saving of over eighty billion dollars a year in
the United States alone. This realization led to the setting of a target that about sixteen per cent
of clinics in the United States could implement this method by 2006 (Leapfrog Group, 2004).
The success of the implementation of the whole exercise depended on the restructuring of
systems, creating conducive environments and dealing with physicians reluctant to change
(Leapfrog Group, 2004).
The success of computerized physician order entry started at the United States at the
department of Veterans Affairs (Leapfrog Group, 2004). The successful implementation of a
computerized system that aided in the entry of patient information presented a break-through in
research. The system could capture patient data like medications, lab tests, x-rays and time of
medication by which department (Smith, 2013). This breakthrough presented an easy way of
obtaining and keeping patient records. Further, the comments or intervention of the different
departments involved could get accessed easily.
In the United Kingdom, the National Health Service, as of 2006, had a target of getting
sixty million nationals on the computerized health record by 2010 (Morris et al, 2005). This
process involved the gradual access to patient documents and getting them on board. The main
source of the information lay in all health service providers. As documented at the community
INFORMATICS EVALUATION AND OUTCOMES 4
hospital at Massachusetts, over fifty five thousand people could get prevented from wrong or
adverse medication when the computerized system could get implemented.
Discuss how you would perform a needs assessment for the project.
The first step of carrying out an assessment on the need of this technology would involve
the carrying out of a survey pertaining to cases of patient care under manually written and
communicated instructions as opposed to computerized systems. The survey could cover the
financial impacts of handwritten instructions, their effectiveness, their subject to
misinterpretation and being misunderstood. This survey could bring out the imbalances and
negative effects of handwritten works (Smith, 2013).
- Discuss how you would formulate a research question
The research question would seek to cover the impact of the electronic system as opposed
to the manual method of transmission of instructions from physicians to line departments (Smith,
2013). The answer to the research question would lead to the determination as to whether the
electronic method or the manual and handwritten method serves the process of communication
well. The research question would seek to explore the effects and impacts of the effective
method, so as to give a conclusive reply. In order to create a research question, I would ensure
that the question is in line with the topic (Leapfrog Group, 2004). I would take necessary
measures to enable create a succinct research question that portrays relevance and that which is
- Explain how you would develop a hypothesis.
INFORMATICS EVALUATION AND OUTCOMES 5
The hypothesis statement would seek to bring out a clear understanding of the research
question through agreeing or disagreeing with the question. Therefore, the hypothesis relies
heavily on the research question in an effort to unravel required results. Depending on the
framing of the research question, whether in an affirmative or negative manner, the answer
obtained qualifies or disqualifies the hypothesis statement.
- Discuss the purpose of your research.
The purpose of my research would entail the study of the previous methods used in
writing, keeping and communicating patient data as compared to the electronic method. The
research would cover the research done on the communication of patient information in health
systems, their advantages, shortcomings and disadvantages. The research would then cover the
introduction of the electronic method, its benefits, challenges and shortcomings (Smith, 2013).
The aim of the research would seek to promote computerized physician order entry.
- Discuss what research method would best fit the situation
The descriptive-qualitative research method best suits this case (John, 2010). The
research would involve the giving of detailed descriptions, observations made, interviews
conducted and feedback from documents reviewed. This method would present situations as they
occur, how the program would get implemented, challenges faced and the perceptions of the
different people involved in the study. This research method, further, would bring out any
changes and impacts caused the outcomes of the implementation.
- Explain what you would measure and measurement method.
INFORMATICS EVALUATION AND OUTCOMES 6
The main component that would involve measurement entails the determination of the
number of people supporting the electronic method as opposed to the manual method of patient
data transmission. This would bring out the will of the majority of people, considering that
different people harbor different opinions in any matter. The higher the number of people
supporting any one argument would definitely indicate the prevalence over the other option
(Connolly, 2005). The measurement method would involve quantitative determination of
participants supporting against those opposing one method of data sharing: either electronic or
- Explain the benefit of one data collection tool or technique you would use
I would prefer conducting interviews as a data collection tool (John, 2010). Interviews
involve talking to participants in an effort to get their views on the topic at hand. They present a
more informed approach since cases of collaboration among groups, as arises in questionnaires,
gets eliminated. Interviews, further, give a chance to get first-hand information and knowledge
from a primary source, thereby enhancing the trust in information collected. This technique
ensures timely acquisition of research results.
- Discuss how you would analyze the data you gather
The analysis of the data collected would involve going through the data and pitting those
supporting against those supporting the computerized method of physician order entry. The
analysis would also seek to study the reasons given in support or against the method (John,
2010). The use of percentages, pie charts or graphs would, clearly, bring out the differences
between the two camps (those supporting against those opposing). The analysis would also seek
to bring out the more supported concept among a majority of the participants.
INFORMATICS EVALUATION AND OUTCOMES 7
- Discuss how you would draw conclusions
The drawing of a conclusion would, mainly, depend on the analysis of the collected data.
In instances where more participants favor computerized physician order entry, the research
would get concluded that, given the reasons brought forth by a majority of participants,
computerized order entry should get in use. On the other hand, if a majority of participants
oppose electronic order entry, the handwritten method should continue.
INFORMATICS EVALUATION AND OUTCOMES 8
Connolly, C. (2005). “Cedars-Sinai Doctors Cling to Pen and Paper”. The Washington Post.
Retrieved on 25 th Jan 2013.
John, G. (2010). four Levels of Measurement in Social Science Research.
Morris, C. J., Savelyich, B. S. P., Avery, A. J., Cantrill, A., & Sheikh. A. (2005). “Patient
safety features of clinical computer systems: questionnaire survey of GP views”. Quality
and Safety in Health Care14 (3): 164–168.
Smith, P. A. (2013). Making computerized provider order entry work. London: Springer.
The Leapfrog Group. (2004). “Hospital Quality & Safety Survey”.