Social psychologist

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Question 1

Research summarized in your textbook (Sastry & Ross, 1998) finds that members of _________ cultures show less of a relationship between perceived control and psychological distress because of the _________. (4 points)

Answer: Western; culture of honor

Western; importance of individual achievement

Asian; emphasis on collectivist values

Asian; Samurai warrior tradition

Question 2

When jurors view a video of an interrogation, they are most likely to believe the suspect was coerced when they saw: (4 points)

Answer: just the suspect’s face.

just the interrogator’s face.

both the interrogator’s and suspect’s faces.

nothing but heard the complete audio recording.

Question 3

According to the authors of your text, not only do jurors rely _________ on eye witness testimony, they also _________ how accurate it is. (4 points)

Answer: heavily; overestimate

very little; question

solely; correctly estimate

fairly; properly estimate

Question 4

When a coach gives his or her team a pep talk, he/she is really trying to boost their _________.  (4 points)

Answer: intelligence

self-esteem

external locus of control

self-efficacy

Question 5

George’s wife has just died from cancer. Based on what the authors of your text report about how people deal with such loss, what is George most likely to do in response to her death? (4 points)

Answer: Sell her belongings the next day to rid his memory of her

Grieve heavily for several months

Become severely depressed

Be distressed for a short time then bounce back

Question 6

A number of laboratory and field studies in social psychology have revealed that two psychological factors determine whether a setback is perceived as stressful. They are _________ and _________. (4 points)

Answer how permanent the setback is; how severe the setback is

how much control people feel; how they explain the causes

how common the setback is; how much control people feel

people’s prior experience with setbacks; their projections of future success

Question 7

Recall that when asked to describe convicted Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, a mechanic at a truck rental office described a muscular man with a baseball cap and black T-shirt. It later came to light that McVeigh most likely worked alone and it was realized that the mechanic was confused. He had described an innocent man who was at the truck rental office the day before McVeigh appeared there. This is a real-world example of faulty: (4 points)

Answer: questioning of eyewitnesses.

acquisition of relevant information.

source monitoring.

retrieval of relevant information.

Question 8

Six months ago, a nursing home started a program in which some residents were allowed to choose their daily activities. All else being equal, which of the following residents is most likely to die sooner? (4 points)

Answer Edgar, who participated over the entire course of the program

Ruth, who recently joined the program

Martha, who recently dropped out of the program

George, who never participated in the program

Question 9

If someone has a strong internal locus of control, they tend to believe that: (4 points)

Answer: their fate is a matter of happenstance.

they can control his/her fate.

if you want a job done right, you must do it yourself.

self-control is a valuable quality.

Question 10

You are an assistant district attorney trying to decide which suspect to try for a burglary case. Each of four eyewitnesses picked a different suspect from a photo lineup. Based on research conducted by David Dunning and Lisa Beth Stern (1994), which eyewitness would you find most credible? (4 points)

Answer: Beth, who carefully compared each of the faces against the others

Diana, who reported that the suspect’s face just “popped out” at her

Edward, who has just provided a written description of the suspect

Larry, who took longer than the other witnesses to pick his suspect

Question 11

You are a social psychologist contacted by a defense attorney who is convinced that her client is innocent of assault. The prosecutions case rests heavily on eyewitness testimony. You have agreed to serve as an expert witness whose task is to educate the jury about the shortcomings of eyewitness testimony. What would you tell the court? (30 points)

Question 12

Our minds are not video cameras that objectively record and play back all events we see and hear. One reason eyewitness information is often unreliable is that one or more memory processes can be affected. What are those three processes, and what factors can bias them? (30 points)

Social psychology, health, and the law

Question 1

Research summarized in your textbook (Sastry & Ross, 1998) finds that members of _________ cultures show less of a relationship between perceived control and psychological distress because of the _________.

 Answer: Western; importance of individual achievement

Question 2

When jurors view a video of an interrogation, they are most likely to believe the suspect was coerced when they saw:

 Answer: Both the interrogator’s and suspect’s faces.

Question 3

According to the authors of your text, not only do jurors rely _________ on eye witness testimony, they also _________ how accurate it is.

 Answer: heavily; overestimate

Question 4

When a coach gives his or her team a pep talk, he/she is really trying to boost their _________.

 Answer: Self-esteem

Question 5

George’s wife has just died from cancer. Based on what the authors of your text report about how people deal with such loss, what is George most likely to do in response to her death?

 Answer: Be distressed for a short time then bounce back

Question 6

A number of laboratory and field studies in social psychology have revealed that two psychological factors determine whether a setback is perceived as stressful. They are _________ and _________.

Answer: how permanent the setback is; how severe the setback is

Question 7

 Recall that when asked to describe convicted Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, a mechanic at a truck rental office described a muscular man with a baseball cap and black T¬-shirt. It later came to light that McVeigh most likely worked alone and it was realized that the mechanic was confused. He had described an innocent man who was at the truck rental office the day before McVeigh appeared there. This is a real-world example of faulty:

 Answer: Retrieval of relevant information

Question 8

Six months ago, a nursing home started a program in which some residents were allowed to choose their daily activities. All else being equal, which of the following residents is most likely to die sooner?

 Answer: George, who never participated in the program

 Question 9

 If someone has a strong internal locus of control, they tend to believe that:

 Answer: They can control his/her fate.

Question 10

 You are an assistant district attorney trying to decide which suspect to try for a burglary case. Each of four eyewitnesses picked a different suspect from a photo lineup. Based on research conducted by David Dunning and Lisa Beth Stern (1994), which eyewitness would you find most credible?

Answer: Edward, who has just provided a written description of the suspect

Question 11

 You are a social psychologist contacted by a defense attorney who is convinced that her client is innocent of assault. The prosecution’s case rests heavily on eyewitness testimony. You have agreed to serve as an expert witness whose task is to educate the jury about the shortcomings of eyewitness testimony. What would you tell the court?

Answer: Eyewitness testimony has a number of shortcomings. One of the shortcomings is the contamination of the eyewitness memory. This happens when for instance in a crime scene an eyewitness gives much attention to the guns as opposed to the criminals. Another factor that cause shortcomings include the distance from the suspect, time when the incident was viewed and described and the time of the day.

Question 12

Our minds are not video cameras that objectively record and play back all events we see and hear. One reason eyewitness information is often unreliable is that one or more memory processes can be affected. What are those three processes, and what factors can bias them?

Answer: The three memory process are encoding where information is processed to enter into memory, storage where information is  held or stored  for a certain period of time and lastly is the retrieval process where information in the memory is accessed or recalled when needed.

Various factors account for biasness in the memory process.  This biasness may either enhance or impair recall memory or may alter the content of what is reported as remembered.  These include humor effects whereby people tend to remember humorous items more easily than non-humorous (Science daily, 2013). The second is positivity effects  whereby  older people will favor positive over negative information in their memories and lastly is the generation effects whereby individual are able to remember self generated information best  compared to  external generated information.

References

Basic memory process.

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