Please discuss the result findings and limitation of literature review on the basis of
Smoking in Aboriginals Community
Discussion of findings/results
Sustained and effectively coordinated tobacco control programmes have led to long-
term health gains, such as a reduction in mortality rates from heart disease. In turn, this has
resulted in increases in life expectancies. Even so, Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal
people continue suffering high rates of morbidity and mortality from illnesses caused by
smoking, with smoking prevalence of up to 82% (Robertson et al., 2013). The findings
demonstrate that cigarette smoking is the most significant cause of preventable death amongst
Australia’s Aboriginal people. Even as the smoking rates in non-indigenous population have
noticeably reduced over the last 3 decades in Australia, the same can actually not be said for
the indigenous people since the rates of tobacco use amongst the Aboriginals exceeds by far
the smoking rates of non-indigenous Australians (Robertson, 2011). Smoking among
Aboriginals is the most preventable cause of diseases and early death; it causes 1 in 5 deaths,
and is directly responsible for 33% of incidences of heart disease and cancer in this
population (Robertson et al., 2013).
The findings show also that there are a number of factors that contribute to the high
smoking rates among the Aboriginals for instance issues of access as well as appropriateness
of support and services, which reflect systemic impediments to improving the health of the
Aboriginal populations (Cosh et al., 2015). Other factors that contribute to sustained high
smoking prevalence among Aboriginals include living with people who smoke,
overcrowding, starting to use tobacco at a young age, historical role of tobacco among the
Aboriginals, normalization of smoking in a lot of communities, history of dispossession and
SMOKING IN ABORIGINALS COMMUNITY 2
colonization, as well as variable acculturation that contribute to low education levels, low
economic and social status, and high level of unemployment (Cosh et al., 2015).
The results also demonstrated that many Aboriginals are either actively attempting to
stop smoking or they were actually thinking about it in spite of limited access to suitable
support. Among Aboriginals who have already quitted tobacco use, a significant motivator
was health concerns. Other motivators are death within the family, pregnancy, wanting to
increase fitness, lack of access to cigarettes, monetary cost, doctor’s advice to stop smoking,
social marketing, role model such as health worker or parent, concern for future health, and
concern regarding a diagnosed acute or diagnosed health condition or physical sign, for
instance shortness of breath (Cosh et al., 2015).
In addition, the findings show that a number of tobacco action initiatives have been
conducted that target the Aboriginals. In their study conducted n Arnhem Land, Northern
Territory, Robertson et al. (2013) learned that in disadvantaged, discrete Aboriginal
communities, more effective management of Environmental Tobacco Smoke can be achieved
by enhancing local ownership of smoke-free policies and developing implementation
strategies at the grass-root level which incorporate and recognize cultural contexts. In
smokers who are not planning to stop smoking immediately, Chan et al. (2011) reported that
smoking reduction initiatives with nicotine replacement therapy and behavioural support are
in fact more effectual compared with advice to stop smoking.
Even though guidelines at the moment advice smokers to stop smoking on medical
reasons as the most appropriate intervention in smokers that have no immediate quitting
plans, smoking reduction programs provide an effective alternative (Chan et al., 2011).
Smoking cessation interventions that target youthful Aboriginal smokers in Australia should
build motivation to stop smoking through the use of motivators of cost issues, sporting
SMOKING IN ABORIGINALS COMMUNITY 3
performance for males, children and pregnancy, as well as health reasons. At the same time,
such interventions should acknowledge the relevant role of stress and social influence in the
lives of youthful urban Aboriginals who use tobacco (Cosh et al., 2015). Pharmacotherapy for
smoking cessation has also been found to be effectual whenever it is combined with health
professional support and culturally tailored behavioural interventions (Carson, 2014).
Limitation of literature review
The literature review that has been carried out provided important insights with regard
to the prevalence of smoking, causes of tobacco use amongst the Aboriginal people of
Australia, and several relevant interventions. Nonetheless, there is little discussion or research
in the extant literature around individual-level cessation interventions. There is also limited
longitudinal research, documents written in Aboriginal indigenous languages have been
excluded as part of the literature review, and many studies are based upon combined studies
of the Torres Straits Islanders and Aboriginals. There is also little research on assessment of
tobacco interventions for Aboriginals (Ivers, 2003). Lastly, some studies are founded upon
extremely small-scale engagement with the Aboriginals.
SMOKING IN ABORIGINALS COMMUNITY 4
Carson, K. (2015). Smoking cessation and tobacco prevention in indigenous populations.
Australian Indigenous Health Bulletin, 14(3): 14-26
Chan, S. S., Leung, D. Y., Abdullah, A. S., Wong, V. T., Hedley, A. J., & Lam, T. H. (2011).
A randomized controlled trial of a smoking reduction plus nicotine replacement
therapy intervention for smokers not willing to quit smoking. Addiction, 106(6): 1155-
Cosh, S., Hawkins, K., Skaczkowski, G., Copley, D., & Bowden, J. (2015). Tobacco use
among urban aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for
smoking, barriers to cessation, and motivators for smoking cessation. Aust J Prim
Health, 21(3): 334-341
Ivers, R. G. (2003). A review of tobacco interventions for indigenous Australians. Aust NZ J
Public Health, 27(3): 294-299
Robertson, J. (2011). Tackling tobacco: a call to arms for remote area nurses. Contemp
Nurse, 37(1): 49-56.
Robertson, J., Pointing, B. S., Stevenson, L., & Clough, A. R. (2013). “We made the rule, we
have to stick to it”: Towards effective management of environmental tobacco smoke
in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. International Journal of Environmental
Research and Public Health, 10(6): 4944-4966