Sleep deprivation

USE APA STYLE REFERENCING TO PROVIDE DETAILS OF YOUR
ARTICLE HERE (2 MARKS):
Short, M. A., & Louca, M. (2015). Sleep deprivation leads to mood deficits in
healthy adolescents. Sleep Medicine, 16(2015), 987-993.

  1. DESCRIBE THE MAIN PURPOSE OR PROBLEM PRESENTED IN THIS
    ARTICLE (5 MARKS):
    The purpose of the reported study was to examine the impact that sleep deprivation has on
    the mood and the psychological health of adolescents. The study also purposed to examine the
    impact of sleep deprivation on the regulation of mood among teenagers. An investigation of
    the interaction between the two phenomena is crucial in understanding the behavior expressed
    by teenagers who do not get enough sleep.
    The researchers also purposed to determine experimentally the extent to which sleep
    disturbance interfere with mood in teenagers. The researchers noted that mood abnormalities
    are among mental disorders that have caused significant cases of mortality among
    adolescents, and therefore, studying sleep as an etiological factor would aid the diagnosis of
    the severer psychological ailments. The study further purposed to distinguish sleep
    deprivation from restriction as a causal factor for specific mood abnormalities. In defining,
    their study objectives and purpose, the researchers identified specific research gaps that they
    were to address.
  2. LIST THE HYPOTHESES OR RESEARCH QUESTIONS (5 MARKS):
  3. Can sleep deprivation lead to mood disorders in teenagers?
  4. How can mood disturbance be measured in relation to sleep deprivation?
  5. What mood states affect sleep-deprived adolescents?
  6. Do different mood states vary ion their response to varying degrees of
    sleep loss?
  7. How do the effects of sleep deprivation compare across different subscales
    of mood disturbance throughout a period of 36 hours of wakefulness?
  8. What causes the variations reported in the pattern through which sleep
    affects varying subscales of mood disturbance?
  9. Does gender influence the effects of sleep deprivation on mood states
    among adolescents?
  10. DESCRIBE WHETHER THIS RESEARCH COULD BE CLASSIFIED
    AS “LABORATORY” OR “FIELD” RESEARCH (3 MARKS):
    The study of interest was laboratory-based rather than field-based. Participants were
    assessed from a Sleep Research Center laboratory where they were made to stay awake for
    three consecutive nights. The methodology was the most effective in helping the researchers
    answer the study questions. The laboratory setting also allowed the scientist to control
    environmental factors such as temperature, sound, and light as these could have interfered
    significantly with the results obtained.
    It was also easier to follow the study protocols in a laboratory than it would have been in a
    field setting. This is because the researchers would also control the behavior of study
    participants in addition to modifying the environment. Behavioral monitoring that was
    necessary includes restricting the use of stimulants or sedatives such as caffeine and sleeping
    pills respectively. Additionally, the approach increased the efficiency in which the researchers
    administered various sleep and mood tests to the study participants. These include the
    neurobehavioral test battery (NTB), Karolinska Sleep Scale, and polysomnography (PSG).
    Timing for each of the tests was essential in promoting the consistency and reliability of
    findings. Laboratory research was also a suitable approach as it is associated with a higher
    degree of precision compared to field study (McLeod, 2012). Therefore, studies obtained
    from a laboratory test would be more reliable than those attained from field research

(Kawecki et al., 2012). However, the laboratory setting could have modified the results
significantly hence compromising the validity and generalizability of findings. For instance,
researches in the experiment promoted the comfort of the environment by controlling
disturbances. This approach could have deviated mood states of adolescents from what would
have been the case in the natural or field setting.

  1. DESCRIBE THE SAMPLE THAT WAS USED IN THIS RESEARCH (5
    MARKS):
    Twelve adolescent secondary school students in Australia constituted the study sample in
    the research of interest. They were aged between 14 and 18, and their mean age was 16.17
    and a standard deviation of 0.83.The two genders were equally represented making it possible
    to adequately address gender as a valuable in the investigation. The participants had no
    known psychological or medical condition as was determined through self-reports and parent
    report surveys. Additionally, they were no medications as the use of certain drugs could
    interfere with sleeping and moods. So as to meet ethical requirements for scientific studies,
    the researchers secured informed consent from their subjects. Since the participants were
    minors, written consent was also obtained from their parents.
    The sample was appropriate for the research. In addition to constituting the targeted
    population, it also reduced chances of confounding variables given that participants were
    health and on no medication. However, the sample size was relatively small, more so
    considering variables such as gender and the multiple mood disorders. Nevertheless, (Hamlin,
    2010) noted that small samples are easy to manage and control. This could have been
    advantage for the study as it could have increased accuracy and precision, and hence, the
    reliability and validity of the research.
  2. DESCRIBE THE TYPES OF METHODS THAT WERE USED (5 MARKS):
    Short and Louca (2015) measured mood status using Profiles of Mood States
    Questionnaire-Short Form (POMS-SF). The tool enabled the scientists to describe various
    mood states and classify them into six subscales. These included confusion, anxiety, fatigue,

vigor, depressed mood, and anger. A Likert scale was also used whereby respondents
indicated on the level to which they experienced various mood states on a scale of five points.
A repeated measure plan was also employed in the study. In the design, day, time and sleep
were used as the independent variables while the six subscales of mood were used as the
dependent components. A Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey was also
applied in screening the parents of the adolescents studied. Before undertaking the study,
participants were advised to have maintained normal sleeping patterns for at least the last
seven days. Wrist actigraphy, sleeping diaries, and time-stamped messages were used to
monitor adherence to the specified sleeping patterns.
The tools applied in the study are recommended in investigating sleeping patterns as well
as mood disorders. Chai-Coetzer et al. (2014) wrote that PSG is particularly important in
investigations that involve more than one type of sleep-associated mood disorders.
Continuous observation of participants’ behavior as reported in the study was also important
in enhancing the efficiency of the research. The approach ensured that participants remained
awake as needed.

  1. DISCUSS THE RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS OF THIS RESEARCH (5
    MARKS):
    Short and Louca (2015) reported that participants slept for an average of 9 hours during
    two sleeping opportunities that were provided during the tree days of research. This was an
    indicator that the baseline sleeping opportunities were effective in ensuring that respondent
    had rested adequately prior to the sleep deprivation period. It was established that the six
    subscales of mood disorders worsened when adolescents were deprived of sleep as compared
    to the baseline times. Gender was also noted to influence the response of adolescents to sleep
    deprivation. Females were particularly reported to suffer more anxiety and depressed mood
    than their male counterparts. It was reported that males did not experience anxiety, though
    they had suffered significant depressed mood. Changes on the experience of confusion with
    sleep deprivation also varied between genders whereby females had a greater magnitude of
    change than males. The six mood subscales were also reported to vary differently in response

to increasing sleep deprivation. Fatigue, confusion, and vigor had highest scores while
depressed mood, anxiety, and anger had the least.
The findings adequately addressed the research questions. In addition to showing the
correlation between sleeplessness and mood abnormalities, they enabled a comparison of
these effects during normal and sleep-deprived states for both males and females. As Feldman
and Wihbey (2015) reported, research studies should indicate significant differences across
variables for them to be conclusive.

  1. DESCRIBE YOUR OPINION OR REACTION TO THIS RESEARCH- BE
    CRITICAL IN AN OBJECTIVE AND SCIENTIFIC WAY (5 MARKS):
    Short and Louca’s study met its objectives, and it was conducted scientifically. As such,
    the results obtained were conclusive, reliable, and generalizable. The study was informed by
    previous per-reviewed reports on experimental research from where various research gaps
    were identified. The purpose of the study, research questions, as well as the applied
    methodology was well defined. Consequently, the findings and conclusions made are of a
    sufficient degree of reliability. However, it is worth noting that the research faced significant
    limitations at various levels. Nevertheless, the researchers acknowledged the limitations, and
    therefore, the study could be referred by future scientist in conducting further studies on the
    subject.
    It is also worth noting that the researchers while making logical reasoning used evidence
    from their study as well as other studies to back up their arguments. As Barkeley.edu (2016)
    reported, studies should advance the existing ones and also depict high-standards by outlining
    their structure appropriately for them to be significant in science. Finally, it should be noted
    that Short and Louca (2015) declared no conflicts of interest hence enhancing the reliability of
    their research.

References

Barkeley.edu (2016). Scrutinizing science: Peer review.
A primer for media.
Experimental evolution. Trends in Science, 27(10), 547-560.
McLeod, S. (2012). Experimental method.

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