**Give one example of health-related data (a variable) that can be represented by a piechart. Do the same for a bar chart and a histogram. Explain why each data example youselected (there will be a total of three different variables) is well represented by thecorresponding graph.**

Representing a Health-related Variable

In order to represent health-related data correctly, the raw data is first arranged in a

table. This is the data used to create graphs, which are an effective way of representing data.

Bar chart, histogram, and pie chart are the basic types of graphs for health-related variables.

Pie charts are very effective for representation of qualitative data, one that occurs with

relative frequency. A pie chart is a circle divided into sections, with each section representing

frequency proportionally. (Sullivan, 2013) A health-related variable that would fit in such a

representation is the percentage of malaria misdiagnosis that caused deaths of children in

- This form of presentation is relevant because the aim is to show how the respective

percentages of the variables, not their frequencies.

pneumonia,64%

asthma,25%

typhoid,11%

Misdiagnosis of Malaria in 2012

Health-Related Variables 2

Fig 1: Sample Pie Chart: Misdiagnosis of Malaria in 2012

Then there is a histogram, which applies for quantitative data. This representation is

shown by rectangles whose height represents relative frequency of the data. (Sullivan, 2013)

Data that fits a histogram representation is the frequency or number of malarial misdiagnosis

in different age groups of children. Examples of such age groups are 0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-

14 years, and so on. This data occurs in intervals with a frequency in each case, making a

histogram the most appropriate data presentation method.

200

150

100

50 cases

0-4 years 5-9 10-14

Fig 2: Sample Histogram: Frequency Of Malarial Misdiagnosis in 2012

Health-related variables might also appear in the form of a bar chart. Similar to a pie

chart, a bar chart is suitable for qualitative representation of data. A bar chart consists of

several data categories on one axis and their relative frequencies on the other axis. Each of

these categories has its own rectangle. (Sullivan, 2013) A good example of data that might be

Health-Related Variables 3

displayed using a bar chart is the number of misdiagnosis that caused children deaths in

January, June, and December 2012. Here, the emphasis is on nominal level, thus histogram

does not apply.

JanuaryJuneDecember

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Pneumonia

Asthma

Typhoid

Fig 3: Sample Bar Chart

Health-Related Variables 4

Reference(s)

Sullivan, M. (2013). Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data. (Third Ed.pp. 65-120).

Prentice Hall PTR. (Sullivan, 2013)