Racism and social discrimination

Write a short summary of each of the studies. To be sure that each study meets the
requirements for the Final Paper, address each guiding question below as you summarize
the article:
What topic is being investigated in this study?
What is the research question or questions being proposed in this study?
What or who is the sample being investigated?
What is the research or experimental design being used?
What statistical tests are being used in this study?
The paper should be two to three pages in length, excluding title and reference pages.
Include a reference page that lists the three to five quantitative research studies from peer-
reviewed sources published within the last five years and that adheres to proper APA

Quantitative Research: Article Review

Kang, S., Snell, S. A., & Swart, J. (2012).
This is a qualitative study which aims to reveal the extent of the contribution of human
resource management in various firms (with special interest in law firms), by making a
comparison between option-based and project-based management; and how these two link to
intellectual capital. In a nutshell, the study establishes the link between different approaches of
Human Resource Management to the development of organizational learning in professional
service firms. It therefore poses an interactive question regarding the relationship between the
role of the HRM on exploitative and exploratory learning, using intellectual capital as the ground
resource for such a relationship. In addition, the authors also question the comparative ability of
option-based and project based HRM, and their individual consistence with strategic human
resource management. Ultimately, the study wishes to determine which HRM approach is best
suited to give the highest benefits to a professional service industry such as law firms, as far as
intellectual capital is concerned.
The study investigates samples drawn from practicing law firms, especially those which
have tried both methods of management approaches. 90 Firms with more than 50 attorneys were

selected, and data from their offices used to conduct the research. This is a cross-sectional study
that employed a descriptive research design to achieve its objectives. Results are analyzed by
various statistical methods such as descriptive statistics and correlations and one-way ANOVA.
The study finally concludes that the economic capability of an organization is heavily dependent
on its intellectual capital, which is affected by the type of HRM approach.

Yu-Chuan, C., &Shinyi, L. (2013).
Employee loyalty is a very key factor in most organizations’ success, as it dictates the
rate of turnover. The direct and indirect costs incurred by employee turnover have been
sufficiently shown to be weighing down on organizations which register a high rate of turnovers.
This study develops a model which tests the effect of internal marketing on the organizational
loyalty of an employee. Thought the study uses a range of questionnaires in data collection, the
main aim of the study, as coined it its study questions is whether there is a correlation between
quality of internal marketing and employee perception of an organization; and how this affects
the overall loyalty of an individual employee.
The researchers center their study in a hospital in Taiwan, where 240 employees are
selected as respondents. Since data required would solely come from employees, these were the
target groups and the sample population that are featured in the study. The research design used
by the authors is descriptive, involving a structured survey of target groups. Results are analyzed
using descriptive statistics, structural equation modeling (SEM), and factor analysis. In the
category of descriptive statistics, SPSS and LISREL are extensively used in the analyses. The

research provides a solid background of the problem of employee loyalty, and reiterates that
companies need to increase their employee loyalty through bettering their internal marketing
strategies. It recognizes that a company must be well acquainted with the techniques of proper
communication, training, work support, motivation, atmosphere, and empowerment so as to win
the loyalty of its employees.

Khosrovani, M., & Ward, J. W. (2011).
Racism and social discrimination are prevalent social ills in the current U.S. job market,
since the prejudice against African-Americans has not completely faded away from the society,
despite the heated campaigns and lobby groups fighting to normalize the state of relations among
all races. This study recognizes that though some companies have registered an increasing
number of employees with African-American origin, those who are lucky must still overcome a
load of barriers to secure their positions. It is on this basis that this research wishes to determine
the perceptions of African Americans on their access to various workplaces, and the different
kinds of discriminations that exist including gender bias. It builds on the criteria of remuneration
and rewards used by various organizations on the ranges of employees. The authors analyze such
parameters as equal access to job opportunities, promotion, and skills development among
others.The study employed the use of a questionnaire structured to adequately address one
particular survey question: What is the perception of African American employees on their
access to opportunities at the workplace including employment considerations, skills
development, better remuneration, and job promotions?

The sample used in the study comprised of 187 African Americans working in various
organizations in Houston, Texas. This research is exclusive for the African Americans, as it is
the group that has been historically portrayed to be minor in the society. The research design
used is a descriptive one, employing the use of questionnaires and survey questions. In data
analysis, Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) is used to calculate the numerical data
collected from the survey to demonstrate the frequency of the phenomena being investigated.
The research concludes that it is imperative for organizations to create a healthy working
environment with equal opportunities for all employees, as this would be crucial in raising
employees’ morale, competitiveness, and productivity.



Kang, S., Snell, S. A., & Swart, J. (2012). Options-based HRM, intellectual capital, and
exploratory and exploitative learning in law firms’ practice groups. Human Resource
Management, 51(4), 461-485.
Khosrovani, M., & Ward, J. W. (2011).African Americans’ perceptions of access to workplace
opportunities: A survey of employees in Houston, Texas. Journal Of Cultural Diversity,
18(4), 134-141.
Yu-Chuan, C., &Shinyi, L. (2013). Modeling Internal Marketing and Employee Loyalty: A
Quantitative Approach. Asian Social Science, 9(5), 99-109.