Pulmonary Disease

For this Part Two of your Project, write a paper in APA format and address these elements
that should be used in developing the overall case management plan for Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease:

  1. Best practices
  2. Published guidelines
  3. Clinical pathways
    Use these three topics as subheadings and refer to COPD case management. This is case
    management in a patient with COPD. If any question, please call. Thank you.
    Paper must do all of the following:
    Justifies best practices.
    Evaluates published guidelines.
    Appraises clinical pathways.


This paper is a discussion on practice, guidelines, and clinical pathways in Case management.
Best practices in Case management
The Standards of Practice for Case Management (2010) outline the latest practice recommendations.
These are holistic (address the client in totality, including medical, psychological, social and spiritual
health), collaborates efforts that encourage the client to take care of himself as much as it is possible,
actively involve the client, caregiver, and the medical team; promotes continuity of care, and make
use of the available evidence- based approaches. These also ensure safe and smooth transition
between one cares setting provider to the next.
Proper case management practice facilitates education of the client, family, other caregivers and
health care team on available resources, insurance benefits, treatment options, et cetera, to base on
toward making informed decisions. Therapeutic benefits are experienced by the client as well, as

there is better medication reconciliation by the medical team, improved adherence, as well as
improving the client’s safety and satisfaction.
Published guidelines of Case manager

A number of models have been published to offer guideline to the case manager. The case manager
can use one or more of them, only ensuring to incorporate all disciplinary team representatives in
both deciding on and drawing up the model to use locally. Examples of models include the following
(Mueser, Bond, Drake, & Resnick, 1998; Herman, Conover, Felix, Nakagawa, & Mills, 2007).

Standard Community Care Models; which include Broker Case management Model and Clinical
Case Management Model. These were the earliest, were office based, only that the latter emerged to
meet the need for clinical managers.

Intensive Comprehensive Care Models; Consist of Assertive Community Treatment, Intensive
Case Management approaches and Critical Time intervention. These were initially designed for
severe mental patients. The first two are almost similar, except that in ICM caseloads are not shared,
unlike in ACT. CIT was created to facilitate transition to community based providers.

Rehabilitation-Oriented Community Care Models; Includes the Strength Model (which focused
on strength vs. pathology, and generally emphasizing on growth, contact with community and
consumer choice. Case manager provide services directly); and Rehabilitation model (focusing on
the client’s goals and reinforcing concrete skills to build these goals.

Clinical Pathways
Clinical pathways of care consolidate all the anticipated elements of management by members of the
multidisciplinary team for a patient of a particular case within an agreed time frame, for the achievement of
certain desired outcome. Any deviation from the plan provides information for review of the treatment and
care of the patient (Johnson, 1997). It’s developed by team from all disciplines for compliance (Ellis, 1997).
Its advantages: it measures quality, monitors standard, integrates the recommended clinical guidelines into
practice, and improves consistency. These also incorporates all members of the healthcare team, minimizes
duplication, as well as improves the management of risks (Johnson,1997).
It has drawbacks as well: it’s more suited for standard conditions and poorly responds to unforeseen
changes in the client’s health, requires utter support by all staff to be effective, and curtails on
personalized care. Moreover, introduction of new technology may be difficult, and the idea may take
long to be fully adopted by staff.
Practice in case management has numerous positive contributions in health. It is guided by evidence
based principles, and its practicality in the health care setting is enhanced by clinical pathways.


Case Management Society of America. 2010. Standards of practice for case management.
Arkansans. Available at:

Ellis, B. W. (1997). A clinical view of pathways of care in disease management. International Journal of
Health Care Quality Assurance, 10(2), 61-66. Retrieved from

Herman, D., Conover, S., Felix, A., Nakagawa, A., & Mills, D. (2007). Critical time intervention:
An empirically supported model for preventing homelessness in high risk groups. Journal of
Primary Prevention, 28, 295-312.

Johnson, S. (1997) Pathways of care; what and how?” Journal of Managed Care, 1997

Mueser, K.T., Bond, G.R., Drake, R.E., & Resnick, S.G. (1998). Models of community care for
severe mental illness: A review of research on case management. Schizophrenia Bulletin,
24(1), 37-74.