An example that illustrates why public health professional must consider affordability,
acceptability, accessibility, and appropriateness of service is the preventive initiatives such as
polio vaccines. Providing polio vaccines to children below the age of five is an important
initiative that ensures better health for the children and the entire population. This vaccine is
affordable, accessible, acceptable, and appropriate for health enhancement. The government has
resources to provide the service to its population as it is an important initiative. It is also
accessible because in many countries, it is offered free of charge. It’s appropriate because of its
impact on the future health status of the citizens.
Disability adjusted life year (DALY) is important in understanding the gap between the
current health status and an ideal health situation among populations that live to an advanced age
void of disabilities and diseases. DALY is calculated by adding up the years of life lost (YLL)
because of premature mortality in a population to the Years Lost due to Disability (YLD) among
people that live with health condition or the consequence of the condition (DALY=YLL + YLD)
(World Health Organization (WHO), 2014). To arrive at YLL, the number of deaths is multiplied
by the standard life expectancy at the age that death happens (YLL=NXL). An example of where
DALY could be used is in measuring premature deaths.
Public health professionals are concerned with the underlying determinants of health
because of various reasons. One is to find amicable ways of managing and securing better health,
ESSAY QUESTIONS 2
vitality, and wellbeing for the whole population. The factors also give public health professionals
an opportunity to carry out further investigations or studies on the consequences and ways of
reducing their risk factors (Healthy people, 2010). They are also concerned with the factors
because they aim at addressing the major health challenges that face the nation and creating
conditions where people can be healthy both in the present and future generations.
ESSAY QUESTIONS 3
Healthy people. (2010). Healthy People 2020: An Opportunity to Address Societal Determinants
of Health in the U.S
World Health Organization (WHO). (2014). Metrics: Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DAILY).