- Identify an illness of public health importance. Describe in 100 words the primary,
secondary, and tertiary preventive measures for this condition.
- Discuss cost-effectiveness in terms of public health interventions in 100 words.
- Health promotion interventions have three components: (1) health education; (2)
services; and (3) structural (enabling factors). Analyze a health promotion intervention
on the local, national, or international level according to these three components. Please
keep your response to 100 words.
- Chapter 8 outlines effective communication in Box 8.8. Review this list and provide
your thoughts on two of these items. Please keep your response to 100 words.
This is box 8;8 effective communication.
[A] Promotes actions that are realistic and feasible within the constrain faced by the
communities. Build on ideas and practice what people already have.
[B] Repeat and reinforced over time using deferent method
[c] Entertaining and attracts community attention.
[D] Use a simple clear language with local expressions and emphasis short term benefits
Responding to essays
The identified illness of public health importance is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
(T2DM). The primary preventive measures are basically aimed at preventing new cases of
the illness by decreasing the risk factors. Primary intervention measures are activities whose
aim is to prevent T2DM from occurring in vulnerable persons or populations. Primary
measures are: increasing physical activity, and altering diet. Secondary preventive measures
involve early diagnosis as well as effective control of T2DM so as to shun, or at least delay
the development of the illness. Secondary measures include screening in order to identify
RESPONDING TO ESSAYS
asymptomatic individuals with diabetes. Tertiary measures entail measures which are
undertaken to avoid disabilities and acute or chronic complications because of diabetes.
Tertiary measures include surgery to prevent foot problems and retinopathy (Li et al., 2010).
There are a number of interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions
classified as cost-saving have more health benefit at a lower cost; cost-effective interventions
are those that cost $25,001 to $50,000; and very-cost-effective measures are those which cost
≤ $ 25,000 (Li et al., 2010). Generally, interventions that cost not more than $50,000 per
quality-adjusted life year (QALY) are deemed as efficient usage of resources and are
recommended. Most of the interventions are cost-saving and very cost-effective. (i)
Interventions that are cost-saving include: ACE Inhibitor; angiotensin receptor blocker
(ARB) therapy; early irbesartan therapy; and comprehensive foot care. (ii) Very cost-effective
measures include: intensive lifestyle interventions; universal opportunistic screening
undiagnosed T2DM; intensive glycemic control; statin therapy; counseling and treatment for
cessation of smoking; immediate vitrectomy; and annual screening for diabetic retinopathy
(Li et al., 2010).
Health promotion interventions have 3 components: health education; services; and
structural/enabling factors. For T2DM, health education will involve the provision of
education to groups and individuals whose goal will be to help people make lifestyle changes,
and to improve attitudes, self-efficacy, knowledge as well as individual capacity to change.
Health services: this intervention essentially entails making health services available and
accessible to persons with the disease. For the case of T2DM, this component of interventions
is when the diabetics receive the necessary health care needed aimed at preventing and/or
RESPONDING TO ESSAYS
treating the disease in the susceptible individuals or groups. Structural/enabling factors:
public health structural interventions are those which promote health through changing the
structural context in which health is both produced and reproduced. To prevent T2DM,
structural interventions include taxing unhealthy foods to make them less affordable/available
and subsidizing healthy food to make them more available and affordable.
Among other vital elements, effective communication entails repeating and
reinforcing the message over time with use of different methods. This will ensure that the
listeners understand the message. By repeating the message to the listeners and reinforcing it
again and again, the listeners will be able to grasp the message, and if possible, they will ask
questions to get clarification of something. In essence, when the message is communicated
using various methods and is reinforced, it will be difficult for the listeners to forget the
message. Effective communication also entails using a simple and clear language with local
expressions and emphasizes short-term benefits of actions. By communicating with a clear
and simple language, and using local expressions, the message will come across to the
listeners in way that each one of them can understand. The words would be remembered
since listeners immediately understand what is that, that is being said.
RESPONDING TO ESSAYS
Li, R., Zhang, P., Barker, L. E., Chowdhury, F. M., & Zhang, X. (2010). Cost-Effectiveness
of Interventions to Prevent and Control Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.
Diabetes Care, 33: 1872-1894.