Identify two of the most prolific scientists in your personal area of interest in exercise
physiology and briefly describe what they have done and how they have contributed to the
field of exercise science. Discuss why are there contributions important to the field of
exercise science. Paper must be in APA format and 2-3 pages.
The area of exercise physiology has many prolific scientists; this paper discusses two of
the most prolific scientists who are Joseph Hubertus Pilates and August Krogh.
Joseph Hubertus Pilates
This prolific scientist is known for the exercise physiology known as the Pilates system
which was originally known as Contrology. This is a method of conditioning the body and
exercise that rests on six basic principles. These principles are control, precision, concentration,
centering, breathing and flowing movements (Elsevier, 2020). The six principles play a
significant role in explaining the importance of whole-body exercise. Pilates control explains that
during exercise body movements need to be controlled in all parts of the body, concentration
means that all parts of the body are important and therefore close attention has to be paid to all
parts of the body that are moving. Centering is based on the focal points of the Pilates method
which are the lines across the hip bone and the rib cage bottom. On the same note, movement
during exercise should be smooth and flowing, not too fast or too slow. Movement should be
correct during exercise and the person should exercise full exhalation and inhalation (Elsevier,
2020). Pilates can be done in different postures depending on the available equipment and the
aim of the person exercising.
Pilates has made important contributions to the field of exercise science. Some of the
contributions are related to helping solve health-related disorders such as breathing disorders.
Based on one of the six principles applied in the Pilates system which is breathing, exercise
enhances full inhalation and exhalation. On the other hand, working on the lower rib cage helps
improve breathing. On the other hand, Pilates is used in mental awareness. While Pilates is
combined with yoga it produces positive results that help the mind to relax and function under
reduced or no pressure (Elsevier, 2020). Yoga is an exercise that intends to develop body and
soul through different postures, improving strength and enhancing flexibility. It integrates
meditation and breathing, Pilates and Yoga reduces symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) which
is a brain disabling disease, these exercises are considered to be an effective form of
complementary therapy for patients suffering from this brain disorder (Elsevier, 2020). Pilates is
also associated with other clinical and medical benefits such as integration into clinical
approaches used for control intervention that help release pelvic and lower back pains. It has also
been cited that Pilates helps in the management of some common medical conditions such as
eating disorder and resolving faults in muscles and posture (Elsevier, 2020).
Krogh is one of the prolific scientists whose research has significant influence in the
fields of exercise physiology and biology science. His research brought out useful information on
the exchange mechanism of respiratory gases, he made the establishment that pulmonary gas was
not exchanged by the mechanism of secretion but rather diffusion (Katch). His contribution to
the exercise physiology was based on the regulation of respiration and circulation during
exercise. His findings indicated that during exercise, body tissues extracted more oxygen which
increased ventilation and circulation. This developed his interest in the way oxygen was received
by the muscles and therefore he studies oxygen pressure and its diffusion capacity through body
tissues and blood flow through the capillaries (Katch).
Krogh made significant contributions to the various topic associated with exercise
physiology such as responding to change during posture and exercise intensity, muscle strength
and performance during exercise and the maximum working capacity while performing arm and
leg exercises (McArdle et al., 2010). His contribution is important to many groups of people. The
physiology of muscle exercise is an important science that provides information on which extent
human organisms can adapt to stress and strains caused by the environment. This knowledge and
information are useful to clinicians, psychologists, trainers, athletes and other fields related to
human body working capacity (McArdle et al., 2010). Apart from making contributions to the
primary issues related to health matters, Krogh’s study on the physiology of muscular exercise
provided useful information on how organisms adapt to try to eliminate effects of diseases by
mobilization of the regulatory mechanisms that are responsible for body functions (McArdle et
al., 2010). These contributions are important because they help trainers and athletes dealing with
issues such as blood sugar concentration, respiratory problems, and body temperatures. During
heavy exercises, they can understand why they are experiencing certain problems and therefore
they can be able to determine the amount of exercise their bodies can handle and what
adaptability mechanisms are required for them to reduce the risks involved. On the other hand,
clinicians dealing with patients suffering from illnesses such as diabetes and high blood pressure
that requires some exercise therapy can understand the effects of some of the exercises their
patients get involved with. In this case, with the understanding of the muscular physiology
exercise, they can develop an effective and efficient exercising plan for the patients that will not
interfere with their respiration and circulation of blood gases in the body tissues and blood
capillaries thus reducing the health risk involved.
Elsevier B.V. (2020). Pilates.
Katch, F. I. (n.d.). Sportscience History Makers – August Krogh (1874-1949).
McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2010). Exercise Physiology: Nutrition,
Energy, and Human Performance. DC: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.