Program Planning Model and Theory
Program planning models organize the steps and actions needed to reach the intended
program goals and objectives. Public health behavioral theories are used to explain health,
and established theories provide evidence-based support for your proposed intervention.
For this assignment, select a program planning model and public health theory to create a
framework for your program intervention. Write a 750-1,000 word paper detailing the
model and theory used to implement your program. Include the following:
Describe your chosen model. Why is this model relevant to public health? Explain why this
model is best for the implementation of your project.
Apply this model to your proposed program. Include a description of each step or phase.
Project how the chosen model will support your proposed goal and objectives for your
Describe your chosen health behavioral theory. Explain why this theory is best for the
implementation of your project. Project how the chosen theory will support your proposed
goals and objectives for your proposed intervention.
You are required to cite to three to five sources to complete this assignment. Sources must
be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public
Program Planning Model and Theory
The model chosen is PRECEDE–PROCEED model. The model focuses on the desired
outcomes of public health program. The population under study is assessed for quality of life and
healthcare needs. The data from assessment is used to design and make implementation and
finally evaluate the interventions (Binkley, & Johnson, 2013). The model focuses on the
outcomes and works backwards in cause-effect relationship to define the methods and actions to
attain the stated objectives. The model assumes that the concerned population fully participates
in defining their problems, the goals to achieve and interventions.
The PRECEDE part focuses on the individual factors affecting health and collectively
makes up the education diagnosis part of the model. The second part, PROCEED, is made up of
ecological diagnosis and addresses environmental factors affecting health (Binkley, & Johnson,
2013). PRECEDE is composed of the first five steps and PROCEED comprises of last four steps
(Binkley, & Johnson, 2013).
The Relevance of the Model to Public Health
There are individual factors that contribute towards good health. Environmental factors
present barriers against the achievement of good health (Binkley, & Johnson, 2013). The model
is supported by social cognitive theory that describes the role played by individual constructs,
such as goals and environmental factors such as social support to behavior.
Public health is affected by social, cultural, economic and political factors.
The PRECEDE–PROCEED model addresses the self-efficacy, existing skills, attitudes,
knowledge, beliefs and personal preferences in health behavioral change. Further, the model
addresses environmental factors that include social support, economic rewards and social norms
(Binkley, & Johnson, 2013). Several public health concerns such as obesity are closely related to
health-related behaviors. The model addresses the constructs affecting behavior change.
The Model and Implementation of My project
My project is on obesity among Hispanics in Texas. The project addresses physical
activities and nutrition. Adjustment of physical activities and change of nutrition are health-
related behaviors. Xiang, Yang and Yan (2016) prescribe moderate to vigorous intensity physical
activities to the Hispanics living Texas. Generally, physical activity is one of the approaches
used in long term management of overweight and obesity.
PRECEDE–PROCEED model has been tested on its effectiveness in improving physical
exercises. Rezapour, Mostafavi and Khalkhali (2016) conducted a study to determine the impact
of PRECEDE–PROCEED model-based actions to in the management of weight among students.
According to the study, the model had positive results in improving performance of physical
activity, and reduction of inactivity, as an intervention to reduce obesity and overweight. The US
DHHS prescribes different types for preventing and managing with obesity and overweight
My project address nutrition as health related behavior in among the Hispanics in Texas.
Whatnall, Patterson and Hutchesson (2019) carried out research to evaluate nutritional
interventions based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. A nutritional intervention program was
developed based on the model and applied to intervention groups of participants. The findings of
the study showed that the nutritional intervention provided a solution to healthy eating habits,
among the study participants.
Application of the Model to My Proposed Program
Step 1: Social Diagnosis. Hispanics are the single race has who has the highest
prevalence of obesity in the USA. Most Hispanics are aged 40 to 59 years. Advanced age is
associated with poor adherence to physical activity. Low educational levels are associated with
failure to adhere to obesity management guidelines. Only 27 % of Hispanics in Texas have
attained at least a college degree (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019). The goal is to design physical
activities that are appropriate for the aged population of Hispanics.
Step 2: Environmental Diagnosis. The lack of appropriate physical activities and
unhealthy nutrition are the main environmental factors associated with obesity among the
Hispanics living in Texas (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019).
Step 3: Ecological Assessment. Hispanics’ food culture promotes the consumption of
high amounts of calories which predispose to obesity (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019). The goal is to
increase the consumption of healthy foods among Hispanics.
Step 4: Policies and Regulations. The policies that guide nutritional modification and
physical activities are prescribed by Health People 2020 guidelines. The policy describes the
intensity, duration and type of physical activities among the preschool children, adolescents,
adult, and older adults. The policy prescribes the types and amount of foods to eat to reduce
Step 5: Implementation. The program will be implemented among obese and
overweight Hispanics in Texas. Implementation will focus on achieving all the defined and
Step 6: Objectives. The program will be implemented based on identified defined and
Step 7: Evaluation of the Process. The programs will be evaluated on the number of
Hispanics who had been diagnosed with obesity and whose body weight has reduced.
Step 8: Evaluation of the Impact. The program will be evaluated one type of intensity
and duration of physical activities for each group and combination and amount of foods
Step 9: Evaluation of Outcome. The program will be evaluated on the percentage of
change in physical inactivity and consumption of calories.
The PRECEDE–PROCEED model will facilitate the identification of the population
affected by obesity and the associated individual, ecological and environmental factors. The
model will guide interventions geared towards achievement of the specific set objectives.
Health Behavioral Theory
The chosen health behavioral theory is the health belief model. The heath belief model
identifies specific personal factors that affect the change of health-related behavior. The factors
that affect the change of behavior are; the self-perceived susceptibility to adverse health
conditions, the self-confidence in the ability to solve the challenges that bar from health related
behavior and perceived benefits from associated behavioral change (Skinner, Tiro, & Champion,
Health Belief Model, Implementation of the Program and Proposed Goals and Objectives
The health belief model will guide the interventions to be implemented in the program.
The Hispanics population in Texas will be educated on the susceptibility to obesity and related
complications. The population will also be supported to boost their self-confidence in
overcoming barriers against physical activity and nutrition, as change of behavior (Skinner, Tiro,
& Champion, 2015). The population will be educated on the benefits of performing physical
activities and nutrition behavior towards the reduction of obesity.