Prevalence of Zoonotic or Vector-Borne Diseases

Prevalence of Zoonotic or Vector-Borne Diseases
Identify a zoonotic or vector-borne disease prevalent in a specific region of a developed or
developing country. Complete a two-part informative assignment that includes both an
illustrated and written component discussing the incidence and response to the disease.

Part I
Illustrate the following for the identified zoonotic or vector-borne disease:
Create a diagram or flowchart: Describe the chain of infection (agent, host, and
environment). Include the reservoir, routes of exposure, disease transmission. Illustrate the
symptoms and identify susceptible populations.
Identify one or more surveillance reports using the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report (MMWR) or National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) resources
and discuss the methods used in data collection. Use a table or graph to present data from
the report. Summarize the information of the report, including the burden of the disease
and the morbidity and mortality rates in the region.
Part II
In a 500-750 word paper, evaluate the incidence and response to the identified zoonotic or
vector-borne disease.
Describe public health interventions used to treat or prevent the disease.
Using One Health as at least one reference, discuss predictions for the future spread of the
disease and how it will impact human, animal, and ecosystem health in this region.
Propose strategies for containment and prevention. Discuss the necessary agencies and
stakeholders important to addressing the issue.
You are required to cite to three to five sources to complete this assignment. Sources must
be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public
health content.

Part 1

Zoonotic Disease- Ebola Virus

Routes of Exposure- contact with infected fruit
bats, transmission from wildlife to people, human-
to-human interaction through direct contact with
organs, blood, and secretions, infected syringes
and needles, and direct contact with the body of a
deceased person

Susceptible Populations-
Host Factors- all ages and
sexes have an equal
preponderance for the disease

Period of Inactivity- incubation period of
2-21 days
Infected individuals should be isolated for
21 days

Symptoms- fatigue, fever,
headache, sore throat, pain in the
Anorexia, diarrhea, nausea,
abdominal pain, edema,
confusion, coughs, rash, vomiting,
coma, postural hypotension, and
shortness of breath
Maculopapular rash, mucosal
hemorrhages, nose bleeding,
coughing and vomiting blood,
blood in the stool, ecchymoses,
petechiae, metabolic disturbance,
convulsion, shock, and multiple
organ failure
Environment- low
temperature and absolute
humidity, seasonal
migration of fruit bats

Agent- RNA virus of the Filoviridae
family and genus Ebola virus
Other factors: Zaire Ebola Virus

Reservoir-fruit bats of the
Pteropodidae family

Mode of Transmission- abrasion,
mucosal surfaces, and injuries in
the skin, direct transmission,
contact with primates during
consumption or hunting, human-
to- human transmission

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Based on MMWR, a report prepared by Spengler et al. (2016) compiled different
perspectives on the spread of EVD in the West African region. The attainment of this objective
involved the comparison of various factors prevalence of EBV in between 2013 and 2016. The
authors thus focus on the discussion of the challenges encountered in minimizing the spread after
the identification of the.
Summary of the Report as of March 27, 2016

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The burden of the Disease Morbidity Mortality Rates
Unprecedented emergence and
sheer magnitude
Prompted unparalleled
international response-
thousands of personnel

28, 646 cases 11, 323 deaths

Part II
According to Spengler et al. (2016), the extensive spread of EBV in the region occurred
as a result of civil instability, inadequate response strategies, surveillance, and the recognition of
the suspected cases. These were followed closely by the insufficiency of general knowledge
among the community members about the disease, inadequate methods of diagnosis, and
extensive transmission in urban centers. As a result, the outbreak of EBV in this region
contributed to the morbidity and mortality rates of 28, 646 incidents and 11, 323 cases,
respectively (Spengler et al. 2016). Moreover, it prompted a strategic response from international
agencies and organizations that included the CDC that supported the deployment of 1, 600
personnel, and numerous others from other entities that comprise the WHO. Due to the
magnitude of the disease, EBV was reported in neighboring nations that include Mali, Nigeria,
and Senegal. These were coupled with the infection of aid workers from foreign countries who
were later transported to Europe and the United States.
Public Health Interventions

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Because no specific medications exist for curing EVD, the most significant approach
applied by the various agencies and organizations involved entailed the prevention of susceptible
individuals from the infection and the restriction of the diseases from spreading. These were
coupled with health education among the people as one of the fundamental keys employed in
combating the various issues related to the outbreak of EVB (Spengler et al. 2016). The health
education components addressed included trusting the caregivers, the adoption of modern
cultural. The application of these aspects sought to decrease the effective reproductive rates
through the engagement of the cultural and traditional beliefs of the target population (Alexander
et al. 2015).
Predictions for the Future and Strategies for Containment and Prevention
Since EBV has not been isolated, and other non-human reservoirs, the escalation of
human-environment interaction is likely to bring a recurrence of the disease and at more severe
outcomes. For instance, among humans, the recurrence of the disease may lead to critical adverse
outcomes that involve more morbidity and mortality rates. These would be coupled with the
escalation of the effects to the extent that the infected areas remain quarantined for extensive
periods (Alexander et al. 2015). For animals, the recurrence of the condition would potentially
lead to the infection of more people due to the tendency to consume products obtained from
them. As a result, the disruption of the ecologic cycle would lead to catastrophic effects on the
ecosystem, thereby culminating in an escalation of the undesirable outcome.
Nonetheless, containment and prevention of these eventualities would necessitate
mobilization of additional resources that include more personnel, food, water, and other supplies.
These would be followed closely by the incorporation of strategies that include partnerships with

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coordinated response units from neighboring nations and international agencies. Additionally,
the development of strategies for collecting and communicating information would facilitate
rapid responses and identification to the various constraints and contexts identified in the
infected areas (Vetter et al. 2016). Similarly, protocols for containing the situations would
contribute to the management of migration of people from the infected regions to different parts
of the world. These would be coupled with the continuation and advancement of epidemiological
assessment strategies, the adoption of healthier eating habits, and the adoption of strategic
surveillance strategies within the communities. These measures would further involve
stakeholders and agencies such as the policymakers, health care facilities, business owners, and
the people in general (Vetter et al. 2016). Additionally, service providers should work
collaboratively with the response units to ensure that the people in the infected areas receive the
necessary resources.


Alexander, K. A., Sanderson, C. E., Marathe, M., Lewis, B. L., Rivers, C. M., Shaman, J.,
Eubank, S. (2015). What Factors Might Have Led to the Emergence of Ebola in West
Africa? PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(6), e0003652.
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Spengler, J. R., Ervin, E. D., Towner, J. S., Rollin, P. E., & Nichol, S. T. (2016). Perspectives
on the West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013–2016. Emerging Infectious
Diseases, 22(6), 956-963.
Vetter, P., Fischer, W. A., Schibler, M., Jacobs, M., Bausch, D. G., & Kaiser, L. (2016).
Ebola Virus Shedding and Transmission: Review of Current Evidence. Journal of
Infectious Diseases, 214(suppl 3), S177-S184.