Philosophy of nursing

Paragraph 1
Explain, in your own words, the difference between the three paradigms: human needs,
interactive, and unitary process. Which of these best fits your philosophy of nursing?
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Select one of the grand or middle-range nursing theories. How does the theory
demonstrate evidence of the utilization of social, behavioral, or bioscience theories?
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Discuss findings of Christina Sieloff Theory of Group Power Within Organizations and
include references. Focus on applying this theory in terms of evaluating care (200


In the philosophy of nursing, there occur three types of paradigm namely basic needs,
interactive and unitary processes. However, these three paradigms are distinguished from
each other due to what they stand for. Human needs paradigm indicate that there should be
identification and limiting of the stressors through nursing mechanisms. In this aspect, much
focus is placed on some of the variables that cause diseases (American Nurses Association,
2010). Human needs paradigm dictate that the patients are to be mirrored as bio-psychosocial
beings that are in constant search for nursing care. The paradigm also believes that the patient
is a mechanistic creature whose health problems can be evaluated and terminated if precise

data is garnered. In simpler terms, interventions can be brought by to bring effectiveness in
satisfying patient’s demands and needs for nursing care.
On the other hand, interactive processes in nursing are those processes that can occur
between the patient and the nurse or between a patient and the health care system. Interactive
processes paradigm proposes that human beings are interactive organisms and their problems
can be understood as multifactorial. Therefore, the paradigm indicates that it is easy to treat a
patient because many elements on the patient’s environment affect the outcome of the
nursing interventions. The paradigm in simpler terms suggests that patient’s needs are mostly
met when there is an appropriate transaction between the patient and the nurse. Unitary
processes paradigm in nursing emphasizes that human being is an integral part of the universe
and that the environment as well as the unitary human being are the same thing (McEwen &
Wills, 2011). The paradigm holds that nursing is mainly the focus on people and their
manifestations, which are derived from the human filed activities. Therefore, patients have
the ability to get involved in knowing the change process as far as their health matters are
concerned. Of the three paradigms above, basic needs reins the others to fit in philosophy of
nursing. This is because nursing it is all about helping the patient: prevention of factors that
affects patient’s response to the stressors (diseases).
The system model is one of the mid-range nursing theories that demonstrate clearly
the evidence of the utilization of social, behavioral, and bioscience theories. The theory’s
main argument is that it is the role of the nurse to help the patient maintain her or his
equilibrium. On the part of the bioscience theories such as adaptation theory, the system
theory provides that a nurse will only be able to provide an optimal level of functioning to a
patient if the subsystems in a system interact together to form whole (McEwen & Wills,
2011). The interactive parts of the environment should be interconnected and interrelated to

ensure stability. Nursing interventions therefore are to focus on restoring behavioral system
balance wherever there is an impairment to bring a new status of development.
On the part of behavioral theories such as behavioral system theory, system model
asserts that a patient is a behavioral system reacting in a manner that is predictable to its
environment to ensure there is balance. Therefore, nursing intervention occurs whenever a
patient or a person is unable to perform necessary subsystem tasks. In overall terms, nursing
is the deliberate external regulatory force that functions to restore the equilibrium in the
behavioral system (American Nurses Association, 2010). System theory demonstrates the
evidence of social theories, such as Neuman system model, by viewing human beings as
spiritual beings with a human experience. This theory of nursing stresses on the impact of a
problem on an individual, and how well the person reacts back to the problem. Social factors
are some of the attributes that forces an individual to seek nursing intervention. The problem
can be either extra-personal or intrapersonal. The environment can take the both perceptive of
a problem that affects a patient. The individual is constantly interacting with environment to
bring an influence between the two.
Christina Sieloff is well known for her theory of group power within organizations.
The findings from this theory have remarkable application in evaluating care. One of the
findings of the theory is that nursing power as viewed by professionals is very important in
provision of quality health services to clients (McEwen & Wills, 2011). The theory echoes
this statement by arguing that nurses perceives the lowest levels of group power in correlation
to subscales of regulating the impacts of environmental forces, communication, resources,
and group supervisor’s result competency. Another finding of the theory by Christina
Sieloff’s theory of group power within organizations is that there was a weak correlation
between professional autonomy and group leader’s goal accomplishment competency,
outcome competency and result attainment perceptive (American Nurses Association, 2010).

The implication of this in evaluating care is that nursing management nurse managers can
play a major role in nurses’ group-goal accomplishment capability and expected professional
The theory also found out that the leader of a nursing organization could bring forth a
significant change in a group’s ability to actualize their power capacity. Therefore, the theory
identifies behaviors correlated to power perceptive variables and nurse leader’s power
competency that a nurse manager can take to foster a nursing power in a group. Moreover,
Christina Sieloff’s theory of group power within organizations found out that a nurse would
need to have leadership characteristics in order to be able to function successfully in a new
century (David, 2014). The needed features comprises of the ability to manage the
environment, ability in changing the views of the patients, being a visionary person, ability to
apply new resources, and to possess abilities to utilize efficiently and effectively
communication skills. This is not forgetting that the theory found out that there was a need to
assist staff gets the group power they need to be heard and to realize their goals.


American Nurses Association. (2010). Nursing’s social policy statement: The essence of the
profession. Washington, DC: American Nurses Association.
David, D. (2014). The Oxford handbook of leadership and organizations. New York: Oxford
University Press.
McEwen, M., and Wills, E. M. (2011). Theoretical basis for nursing (3nd ed.).Philadelphia:
Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.