Peer-reviewed study on any behavioral

Peer-reviewed study on any behavioral or social science topic that used a repeated
measures design. Reference the study and summarize the research question, the subjects,
and the variable(s) of interest. What statistical analysis was used and what were the
results? Were there any statistically significant differences? What does it mean for the
results to be statistically significant? What does this mean specifically for the differences
assessed in this study?

Peer influence: Use of alcohol, tobacco and prescription medications
One of the peer reviewed study that used repeated measures design that forms the basis of
the analysis is “peer influence: Use of alcohol, tobacco and prescription medications”. The
research question in the study was to find out the involvement of college students in risk
behaviors of taking alcohol and other medication prescription. The research question further
invested on the frequency of involvement in such behaviors and the companion with whom the
students engaged in such behaviors.
The study used administered questionnaires to three hundred and twelve college students.
They completed a survey through the email and any correspondents or inquiries were through the
email. The variables that formed the basis of the study included, the frequency and companion of
using drugs there variables therefore included, alcohol use, tobacco, use and medication
prescription among gender.
Statistical analysis used was a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The
findings indicated that men were more likely to be involved in drinking alcohol than women, p <
0.05. They were also likely to chew tobacco than women p<0.01. When it came to cigarette use,
there were no gender differences. Results also indicated that all the participants were likely to
drink and smoke tobacco in the companion or presence of someone else p< 0.1. They were also
likely to misuse or abuse their prescription medications by themselves p<0.1.

If the results are statistically, significance it means or gives the probability of observed
data occurring by chance in a given null hypothesis or a probability of rejecting results of null
hypothesis incorrectly in favor of a second alternative hypothesis.
There were some statistical significant differences in the sense that there was variation in
alcohol and tobacco intake among the genders. Therefore, for the differences assessed in this
study, it implies that there was type I error rate as there was a probability of rejecting incorrectly
the null hypothesis for the alternative hypothesis.



Varela, A., & Pritchard, E.(2011). Peer Influence: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Prescription
Medications, Journal of American College Health, 59(8): 751-756.