Patient scores

The Tscorc is a type of staadard score that is based upon the normal curve wirh a meal of 50 and
a srandard deviation of 10 for the ,rorm group. Test developers have derived uorm tables rhar dlow
us to converr a person’s raw score (points eamed) to the Tscore eqrrivalents that would have been

obtained if th”ip”.ron had been in the norm group, Tscores permit a more meaningful compari-
son wirh a norm group than raw scores. Tests for admission to graduate and undergraduate schools

(e.g., the Graduare Record Exam) cypically use this rype of standardized score’ The formula
frequendy used for Tscore calculadon is:

rscore=$*fso_$l

X(/here: X= raw score ro be converted
X = mean ofthe grouP ofraw scores
SD = standard deyiation ofrhe raw scores
Example: Convert a raw score ofSO to a Tscore, whereE *75 and SD – 5.

T scgre =
10(10)

  • (s0 –
    1E7s)) = 160 + (s0 – rsg) * 160- 100 = 6o

RESEARCH ARTICLE
fi Source: LoGalbo, A., Saw.ie, S., Roth, D. L., Kumiecky, R., Knowlton, R., Faught, E., & Marrin, R. (2005).
Verbal memory outcome in patients with normal preoperative verbal memory and left mesial temporal
sclerosis. Epilepsy and Behavior, 6(3\’ 337-41.
Introduction
Iocatbo er aL (2005) condtrcred a srudy ro examine the “risk of verbal memory loss in padents with
known strucrural abaormaliry (i.e., left mesial temporal sclerosis by Mru) and normal preoperadve
verbal memory performance who undergo teft AIL [anterior temporal lobecromy]’ (toGalbo et aL,
20O5,p.337)-Theresearchets found rharthe “patiencs exhibitingnormal presurgicalverbal memoryare
ar risk for verbal memory declines following AIL These results zuggest rhat functional integriry of the
left mesial temporal lobe may play an irnportant role in rhe verbal mernory outcome in *ris padenr
group” (Localbo er a1.,2005, p.337). Horrever, rhe researchers do recogrrize che limfuadons of their
iuAy and not” rhat rhe small sample size restricts the generalizadon of the snrdy findings.
145

146 EXERCISE 20 ‘ Understanding TScores

Relevant Sardy Results
..Sevenreen patients with left temporal lpilepsy, MRl-based exclusive left MTS [mesial temporal
sclerosis], and normal preoperative verbal memo ry wereidenrified” (LoGalbo et al’, 2005′ p’ 337)’
MTS is a strucrural ab”r;.lt; the brain.’The padents selected for the studywere considered
to have’normat preoperative verbal memory defined as having preoperative perfoaun;e
-a13s1
rhe leaming (Acquisirionf and long delayed free recall (Retrieval) poniot’* of che California Verbal
i””**grti (Ci/Ln of at least.?r.ot” above 40 ( > 16%ile)’ t[e !{,] Acquisitioo s1or9 t1thl
total number of words recalled across the five leaming trials. The cwT Rerieval score is defined

,s total n rmber of words freely recalled after a 20-min delay’ Both of these variables have been orten-
sively employed as markers ofverbal memory outcome followingATl [amerior temporal lobectomy]

irr r”u”ismdies” (LoGalbo et a1.,2005, p. 339). Clinical characterisrics of these padeo6 ar-e summa-
rized in Table 2, and averageCv# ecqftidon and Retrieval T scores are presented in Table 3′

“The average drop in CWT Acquisicion 7 scores was 6’9, represendng a decline of 15% from
baseline performance. The average’&op in c{.T Recrieval Tscores was 9’6, represendng a decline
or, “lr”.”g”
of 2o%from baseline score” (LoGalbo et aL,2005′ p’ 340)’

Cender
Education
(years)
Age at Seizure
Onset Preop Postop Preop Postop

Patient Ag”

44 48 51 47
42 50 51 51
63 5’l 58 58
46 30 44 23
51 47 52 40
48 36 52 40
4246M44
46 38 45 36
50 38 54 37
42 34 41 37
M454234
42u4831 45 41 60 39
/tS 31 41 24
44 40 50 46
46 37 44 35
47 39 46 46
6
5
10
12
12
13
11
I
B
I
11
12
11
I
11
10
10

g

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
I
10
1’l
12
13
14
15
‘t6
17
34
53
25
34
30
2S
19
28
24
38
34
48
25
34
31
17
17
F
M
F
M
F
M
M
M
F
F
M
F
F
F
M
M
M
13
12
14
12
12
12
12
11
10
12
14
13
12
15
14
12
10 1i

17
4 Months
13
12
17
5
b
13
2
10
1
22
12
4
7
6
1

” LJrft ir,*t . *-ory scorc (max vafue = 15); R, rW injqqryI’dy t** (ma( lalue = 15)’
o catitomia verOat l-eaminq f6t (CULT) scores are ]egorted as f score$’
lffilliilf,’ffi .TflilH,:E:Ilih#fi”#:’,ffi ffi !”ry,]4,1ryy,gS?y1xgsHHtrffi mHffi 1
bffif,;ffiI’ #ffi ‘;j6ffi’e’ffi ffi i;1ffi ;”sE

Preoperative fsrore
Fostopaative fscore
SRB change scores

45.e(5.2)
39.0(7,2)
-1.0(.73)

47.8(5.8)
38.2(9.0)
-2.5(1.5)
Lo&tbo, A., sawrie, s., Rot , D. 1.,6;iedo/,8 Knotnl1grr, 1., r3ugt t, E” & Manin, R. (2fi)S. Vefta memrv ortcoms in patienb wift rpmtal
ffiffiiildfil’m,imi.v’rno rsfi maidi;mioral sctemsis ‘ Epite$vadBet$vtior fls)’ p’340′

ll

Understanding7’Scores ‘ EXERCISE 20 147

E STUDY QUE.STIONS

  1. Which patients scored the lowest on the preoperadve CVLT Acquisition? What was their Tscore?
  2. Which parienr scored rhe highesr or posroperad’ue CVLT Retrieval? \Vhat was this patient’s Tscore?

3, Did the padenr in eoesuon Zhave adecline in memory retrieval performance from before and after sur-
gery? Provide a radonale for your answer’

  1. If a patient scored < 16%ile on the cvLT, what would hislher Tscore be les$ than?

S. Iphar is the mean 1x ) and srarrdard deviarion (SD) for preoperadve Tscore for CVLT Rerrisval?

  1. Is the postoperative Acquisition ?scnre for Padent L4 above or below the rnean for che uorm group? Provide
    a rationale forYour answer.
  2. Diseuss the change in CIIIJI Acquisition Tscores for Parient 14 from before and after surgery’ How do her
    Tscores comparJwiththe mearr’CVLTAcquisition Tscores before and after surgery? What do these results
    indicate about this patiends memory?

148 EXERCISE 2O ‘ Understanding f Scores

  1. Assuming rhat rhe discriburion ofscores for the postoperative Acquisition is normal, the middle 68% of the
    patienrs had Iscores between what two values?
  2. Ifa padenr had a raw score = 50, what would hisper preoperauve CVLT Acquisition Tscore be?

il aNswERs ro sruDY QUESTIoNS

  1. Padents 2, 7, 10, and 12 have rhe lowest score on rhe preoperacive CVLI Acquisition. The T score for all four
    patients was a 42 (see Table 2).
  2. Parienr 3 scored the highest on the postoperadve CWI Retrieval with a ?score = 58 (see Table 2).
  3. Patierrt 3 did aot demonstrate a decline in memory rerrieval performance from before and afrer surgery.
    This patient’s Tscore was 58 preoperatively and postoperatively on the CVLT Retrieval which means thar
    the recall of words after a Z0-minute delay was the same before and after surgery
  4. If apatient scored < 16%i1e on the CVLI, hislher Tscore would be less than 40 as indicated in the Relevant
    Study Resulcs from the article.
    For preoperadve Rerrieval, che mean (X ) = 47.8 and the sandard deviarion (SD) = 5.8 (see Table 3).
    Pariint 14 had a postoperarive Acquisirion Tscore below the norm group mean, since her Tscore = 31 and
    the postoperacive Acquisition norm group mean Tscore = 39.0.
  5. Patient 14 had a preoperarive Acquisition T score – 46, which was comparable to the mean PreoPerative
    CVIT Acquisitron Tscore = 45.9.However, padent 14 had a postoperarive Acquisition Tscore = 31, which
    was 8 points below the postoperative Acguisition norm group meau Tscore = 39. Patient 14 had a 1S-point
    decline from before and after surgery when the average drop in rhe CWT Acquisition Iscore was 6.9. Thus,
    this parient had a memory decline that was twice that of the other Patiedt$’
  6. 68%of the scores for the postoperadve CVLTAcquisition were be$reen (31.8,46.2)
    p66rrla for 68% of the scores for a distribudon is:
    XSn .f=39.0 SD=7,2 39.O+ 7.2 4$.2 39.O 7.2 3l.B
    e. rscore= H.(*-#)
    Raw score ofX= 50 to a Tscore, where f = 45.9 and SD = 5.2.
    r scorc =
    10-(s-0)
  • f s0 –
    109:’e)
    ) = ru. r, * (ro – BB27) = s6.15 -38.27 = s7.B s.2 \ s.2 )

5.
6.

Name: Class:
Date:
@ Qr”r.ionr.robucrrd”d . ,

  1. ‘ilizhich padenr scored the highest on che preoperative CVIIT Aaquisieion? What was his or her Tscore?
  2. I?hich patienr scored the lowest on postoperadve CWT Rerieval? W’hat was this padenCs Tscore?
  3. Did rhe parienr in Quesdon 2 have more of a meurory performance decline than average on the CVLT
    Retrievd? Provide a rarionale for your :mswer.
  4. What is the meaa ( X) and standard deviation (SD) for preoperative Tscore for CVLT Acquisition?
  5. Is rhe preoperadve Rerrieval Tscore for Padenr 5 above or below the mean for the norm ofthe group?
    Provide a rarionale foryour answer.

150 EXERCISE 20 ‘ Understanding f Scoret

  1. Assuming that rhe disrriburion of rhe preoperative CVLT Retrieval T scores is normal, the middle 68%
    of rhe patients had Tscores between what two values?
  2. Assuming rhar rhe disrriburion of scores for dre postoperadve CVLI Rerieval ? scores is normal, the
    middle 68% of the patiencs had Tscores between what two values?
  3. The researchers srare thar it appears that the funcdonal integriy of the left temporal lobg despite

evidence of structural abnorrnality, plays a considerable role when ir comes to memory outcomes follow-
ing lefr ATL. Can rhe flndings from this study be generalized to a larger population? Provide a rationale

for your answer.

  1. If a padenr had a raw score = 30, what would his/het postoperarive CVIT Rerrieval Tscore be?
  2. Did padents demonscate more postoperadrre memory declines among CWT Retrieval T scores than
    CVLT Acquisition Tscores? Provide a rationale for your answer’

Exercise 20

Question1: Answer
The highest scoring was Patient no 3 with score of 63. The T score was 45.9.
Question 2: Answer
The lowest scoring was patient 4. The t score for this patient was 38.2.
Question 3: answer
No. There were other patients with higher left injection and right injection memory score. For
example, Patient 5 and 6 have Right injection memory scores of 12 (LoGalbo et al, 2005).
Question 4: answer
Patient pre
1 44
2 42
3 63
4 46
5 51
6 48
7 42
8 46
9 50
10 42
11 44
12 42
13 45

14 46
15 44
16 46
17 47
Mean 46.35294
Standard deviation
Patient pre
1 44
2 42
3 63
4 46
5 51
6 48
7 42
8 46
9 50
10 42
11 44
12 42
13 45
14 46
15 44
16 46

17 47
Standard deviation 5.061388
Question 5: Preoperative T score For Patient 5 is 51, which exceeded the mean value of
46.35294. This was because the majority of the patients have fewer score than the mean.
Question 6: Answer
Range = (17-1) =16
Perc4ntile interval= 16/100=0.16%
With the initial score as 1, incremental order gives the 68% at:
11.72 0.16 11.88
The range is 11.72 to 11.88
The patient is 11, T score = 42 to 44
Question 7: Answer
Range = (17-1) =16
Perc4ntile interval= 16/100=0.16%
With the initial score as 1, incremental order gives the 68% at:
11.72 0.16 11.88
The range is 11.72 to 11.88
The patient is 11, T score = 34 to 45
Question 8: Answer: The findings from this study cannot be generalized because of the different
environmental factors. Secondly, there are high chances of errors in the calculations.
Question 9: Answer
From the iterations, this could be patient in the range of
30 = 5.64 0.16 5.8

This is patient 5
The Postoperative T score = 40 to 52
Question 10: Answer
The patients demonstrated more postoperative scores in the CVLT acquisition than CVLT
retrieval. The maximum of the CVLT Acquisition is 63 while in CVLT retrieval, the maximum
is 60.

Reference

LoGalbo, A., Saw.ie, S., Roth, D. L., Kumiecky, R., Knowlton, R., Faught, E., & Marrin, R.
(2005). Verbal memory outcome in patients with normal preoperative verbal memory and
left mesial temporal sclerosis. Epilepsy and Behavior, 6(3\’ 337-41.

Appendix 1: Incremental percentage
1 1 0.16 1.16
2 1.16 0.16 1.32
3 1.32 0.16 1.48
4 1.48 0.16 1.64
5 1.64 0.16 1.8
6 1.8 0.16 1.96
7 1.96 0.16 2.12
8 2.12 0.16 2.28
9 2.28 0.16 2.44
10 2.44 0.16 2.6
11 2.6 0.16 2.76
12 2.76 0.16 2.92
13 2.92 0.16 3.08
14 3.08 0.16 3.24
15 3.24 0.16 3.4
16 3.4 0.16 3.56
17 3.56 0.16 3.72
18 3.72 0.16 3.88
19 3.88 0.16 4.04
20 4.04 0.16 4.2
21 4.2 0.16 4.36

22 4.36 0.16 4.52
23 4.52 0.16 4.68
24 4.68 0.16 4.84
25 4.84 0.16 5
26 5 0.16 5.16
27 5.16 0.16 5.32
28 5.32 0.16 5.48
29 5.48 0.16 5.64
30 5.64 0.16 5.8
31 5.8 0.16 5.96
32 5.96 0.16 6.12
33 6.12 0.16 6.28
34 6.28 0.16 6.44
35 6.44 0.16 6.6
36 6.6 0.16 6.76
37 6.76 0.16 6.92
38 6.92 0.16 7.08
39 7.08 0.16 7.24
40 7.24 0.16 7.4
41 7.4 0.16 7.56
42 7.56 0.16 7.72
43 7.72 0.16 7.88
44 7.88 0.16 8.04

45 8.04 0.16 8.2
46 8.2 0.16 8.36
47 8.36 0.16 8.52
48 8.52 0.16 8.68
49 8.68 0.16 8.84
50 8.84 0.16 9
51 9 0.16 9.16
52 9.16 0.16 9.32
53 9.32 0.16 9.48
54 9.48 0.16 9.64
55 9.64 0.16 9.8
56 9.8 0.16 9.96
57 9.96 0.16 10.12
58 10.12 0.16 10.28
59 10.28 0.16 10.44
60 10.44 0.16 10.6
61 10.6 0.16 10.76
62 10.76 0.16 10.92
63 10.92 0.16 11.08
64 11.08 0.16 11.24
65 11.24 0.16 11.4
66 11.4 0.16 11.56
67 11.56 0.16 11.72

68 11.72 0.16 11.88
69 11.88 0.16 12.04
70 12.04 0.16 12.2
71 12.2 0.16 12.36
72 12.36 0.16 12.52
73 12.52 0.16 12.68
74 12.68 0.16 12.84
75 12.84 0.16 13
76 13 0.16 13.16
77 13.16 0.16 13.32
78 13.32 0.16 13.48
79 13.48 0.16 13.64
80 13.64 0.16 13.8
81 13.8 0.16 13.96
82 13.96 0.16 14.12
83 14.12 0.16 14.28
84 14.28 0.16 14.44
85 14.44 0.16 14.6
86 14.6 0.16 14.76
87 14.76 0.16 14.92
88 14.92 0.16 15.08
89 15.08 0.16 15.24
90 15.24 0.16 15.4

91 15.4 0.16 15.56
92 15.56 0.16 15.72
93 15.72 0.16 15.88
94 15.88 0.16 16.04
95 16.04 0.16 16.2
96 16.2 0.16 16.36
97 16.36 0.16 16.52
98 16.52 0.16 16.68
99 16.68 0.16 16.84
100 16.84 0.16 17

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