Pathophsysiology

Pathophysiology
Write a 3 page paper that addresses the following:

  1. Describe the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production.
  2. Explain the changes that occur to gastric acid stimulation and production with
    a. GERD,
    b. PUD,
    c. Gastritis disorders.
  3. Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of
    a. GERD
    b. PUD, and
    c. Gastritis.
  4. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a
    patient based on behavioral factor you selected.
  5. Construct a mind map for gastritis in the map include
    a. The epidemiology,
    b. Pathophysiology,
    c. Clinical presentation, as well as the
    d. Diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper
  6. Include all subheadings and references
  7. Describe the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production.
    Acid control and pepsin production mirrors a complex balance of chemotransmitters
    dispensed to the gastric mucosa by various channels which arbitrate both stimulatory and
    hindering methods. Correspondingly, various methods augment to the remarkable capacity of
    normal gastroduodenal mucosa to secure itself against harm from acid/peptic processes in gastric
    sap and to increasingly repair damage when it does happen. Production, defense and healing

Pathophsysiology 2
methods are controlled by the same type of neural, endocrine, paracrine as well as autocrine
management methods.

  1. Explain the changes that occur to gastric acid stimulation and production with

a. GERD,
Several causes can be operative in myriad individuals or in the same individual at various
times. Persons with GERD secrete unusually large ratios of acid; this is not widespread, or a
contributing variable in the large majority of individuals.

b. PUD,
Fluids from an individual’s stomach that refluxes into their esophagus, hurting the lining
in the esophagus might lead an ulcer to form. In any case an ulcer occurs at an area that suffers
inflammation. They then get eroded into blood vessels an aspect that causes bleeding.

c. Gastritis disorders.
Gastritis has no symptoms. The occurrence of signs varies based on the cause and might
include pain or uneasiness or vomiting, anomalies that are usually known as indigestion. Nausea
and sporadic vomiting might result from erosive gastritis, and emission gastritis. There are
chances that ulcers may bleed, causing an individual to vomit blood and if not pass tarry black
stools. Constant bleeding is likely to culminate to attributes of anemia, such as fatigue, weakness
and light-headedness.

  1. Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of

Pathophsysiology 3

a. GERD
The GERD is a particular clinical entity defined by the happenings of gastro-esophagel
reflux by way of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) through into the esophagus causing
symptoms, hurt to the tissues attached on the esophageal. The pathophysiology of GERD is an
intricate and the most misunderstood. An impaired LES pressure and the enhanced reflux during
transient LES relaxations are known to be fundamental etiologic variables. Protracted experience
of the esophagus to acid is another.

b. PUD,
Traditionally, our comprehension of the pathophysiology of PUD is centered on the
impairments in the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin, and on the repression of acid as a healing
method. However, gastric hypersecretion related with gastrinoma in Zollinger-Ellison disorder,
antral G-cell hyperplasia, amplified in parietal-cell mass and a physiological imbalance between
the antagonistic gastric hormones gastrin and somatostatin-still remains a significant issue in
PUD.

c. Gastritis.
Inflammation can be due to many factors such as disorders of the immune system, injury
and certain medication. In the event that warning signs do occur they can be abdominal
discomfort, and nausea. Diagnosis is usually based on the indicators, however in some scenarios
stomach inspection is carried out. The stomach lining curtails pain and can tolerate strong acid.
Nonetheless, gastritis inflames as well as irritates stomach lining.

  1. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a
    patient based on behavioral factor you selected.

Pathophsysiology 4

GERD
Diagnosing
In most cases, GERD is diagnosed based on its popular symptom; heartburn. To confirm
diagnosis, a physician prescribes medications meant to suppress acid production in stomach.
Reduction of heartburn demonstrates that diagnosis is effective.

Treatment

Lifestyle change is the common management of GERD; particularly changing eating habits.
Since acid reflux is more injurious during night compared to daytime, it is suggested that people
suffering form GERD make sure that they elevate their upper bodies when sleeping.

PUD
Diagnosis
Diagnosis of PUD entails two main considerations namely; assessing whether dyspeptic
signs are caused by PUD and assessing particular etiology of ulcer revealed through radiology or
endoscopy. Generally, diagnosis is provided by way of upper endoscopy, though the importance
of pursuing a best diagnosis largely relies on clinical setting. Nevertheless, for patients above 55
years and those with dysphagia and gastrointestinal bleeding have little value in guessing causal
malignancy.

Treatment
Treatment of PUD is meant to reduce ulcer pain, forestall recurrence complications. With
effective anti-secretory medication to eliminate Helicobacter, their purpose can be attained
through therapy. Additionally, quitting smoking and avoiding ulcerogenic medications and

Pathophsysiology 5
changes in lifestyle can help in the treatment of PUD. Other common used medications include
anti-acids, proto pump inhibitors, and hisamine-2 receptor antagonists.
Gastritis
Diagnosis
A physician infers chances gastritis when a patients experiences upper abdominal pain
and in some case nausea. Usually, tests are not necessary. But, if the physician is uncertain of
diagnosis and symptoms fail to resolve with treatment, then a patients stomach is examine with
an endoscope.
Treatment
Irrespective of the cause, symptoms of gastritis can be eradicated through medications
that decrease production of acid in the stomach and avoiding medications that cause warning
signs. If warning signs are mild, anta-acids can help in neutralizing acids in the stomach.
Nevertheless, they have to be taken severe rally in a day.

  1. Construct a mind map for gastritis in the map include

Pathophsysiology 6

References
Sandler RS, Everhart JE, Donowitz M, et al. (2002). The burden of selected digestive diseases in
the United States. Gastroenterology; 122:1500–1511.
Jonides L, Buschbacher V, Barlow SE (2002). Management of child and Gastritis:
Diagnosis and Treatment assessment. 110:215– 221

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