After having read Chapters 1-3 and reviewed the learning materials for this week, please complete the following case study. Remember that your answers may be combined with medical terminology, but they must be defined and explained in physiological terminology.
Mrs. K.B. is age 64 and has been a patient of yours for many years. You are calling her today to tell her the results of her Pap test which was done last week during her routine annual checkup in your office. The test showed marked dysplasia of cervical cells but no sign of infection. Unfortunately, when you call, there is no answer.
Since you saw Mrs. K.B. last week she has had gastritis with severe vomiting for 3 days. She has a history of heart problems and is presently feeling dizzy and lethargic. Her eyes appear sunken, her mouth is dry, she walks unsteadily, and she complains of muscle aching, particularly in the abdomen, and she is concerned about her chronic back pain as well and how she is going to handle her pain if she can’t keep her medication down. She is thirsty but is unable to retain food or fluid. A neighbor has brought Mrs. K.B. to the hospital, where examination shows that her blood pressure is low, and her pulse and respirations are rapid. Laboratory tests demonstrate elevated hematocrit, hypernatremia, decreased serum bicarbonate, serum pH 7.35, and urine of high specific gravity. This case study illustrates a combination of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances. Specific laboratory values are not given to focus on the basic concepts. For clarity, this case study is discussed in multiple parts. Further information about the specific problems involved is given in each part and is followed by a series of questions.
Later in the afternoon, you receive a phone call from Mrs. K.B.’s daughter Sara who tells you that she has been admitted to the hospital with vomiting. Sara is asking about her mother’s test results. Please answer the following questions regarding your conversation with Sara.
Sara is requesting her Mother’s test results and she seems to know that her Mom had a Pap test last week. Sara is really concerned because her Mom had an abnormal Pap test a few years ago and her sister also has a history of Ovarian Cancer. How do you handle this conversation with Sara?
In thinking about how you might discuss these results with Mrs. K.B. or Sara, explain how each of these terms might apply to this scenario: prognosis, latent stage, remission, exacerbations, and predisposing factors.
Explain cellular adaptations and in particular, dysplasia and how testing and or additional testing is done regarding this condition.
Initially, Mrs. K.B. lost water, sodium in the mucus content, and hydrogen and chloride ions in the hydrochloric acid portion of the gastric secretions.
Alkalosis develops for two reasons, the first being the direct loss of ________ ions, and the second being the effects of chloride ion loss. When chloride ions are lost in the gastric secretions, it is replaced by chloride from the serum (See Fig. 2.9 in Chapter 2 of your Gould text). To maintain equal numbers of cations and ________ in the serum, chloride ions and bicarbonate ions can exchange places when needed. Therefore, more bicarbonate ions shift into the serum from storages sites in the _______________ to replace the lost chloride ions. More bicarbonate ions in the serum raise serum pH, and the result is hypochloremic alkalosis.
Which compartments are likely to be affected in this case by early fluid-loss?
Explain how a loss of sodium ions contributes to dehydration.
Describe the early signs of dehydration in Mrs. K.B.
Describe the compensations for the losses of fluid and electrolytes that should be occurring in Mrs. K.B.
Explain why Mrs. K.B. may not be able to compensate for losses as well as a younger adult.