Multiple organizations interact to influence health systems

Swanson et al. (2015) state that “Multiple organizations interact to influence health
systems, including ministries of health, public health organizations, health facilities, private
sector players, universities, health policy institutes, non-governmental organizations,
professional associations, and community-based organizations.” This statement shows the
complex nature of health care systems, and there are even more players at each layer, each
interacting to create effective health care systems.
A feature unique to the health care systems of low- and middle-income countries is that of
external funding, specifically funding that is disease-specific, such as target toward malaria
and its specific needs. Such disease-specific external help highlights the lack of internal
finance of these countries, which is one of the essential points of a functional health care
system. (Mills et al. 2020). Two other significant aspect of these health care systems is how
to encourage the utilization of the care offered and having medical professionals to provide
such care (Mills et al. 2020).
From my reading, there are several suggestions for the development of development of a
strong health care system. Still, ultimately each Minister of Health must determine what
works best for their specific country. The first point is the determine what will be the
source of funding for their system and how will the poorest of their society be taken care of.
Options mentioned by Mills et al. (2020) is to decide between general taxation or a
contributory insurance programs. A country with a weak health care system will have
difficulty delivering specialized care, and citizens may have to pay more out of pocket for
such care, leaving the most affluent of the population affording care. According to Mills et
al. (2020), some countries opt to have general taxation fund ministries of health; other
countries opt for voluntary enrollment in a national health insurance plan.
Once a plan for funding is in place, the Minister of Health needs to encourage the
population to utilize the care that is being provided, such as financial incentives for seeking
preventive care (Mills et al. 2020). Recruitment and financial incentives are also useful in
improving the quantity and quality of the healthcare service provided. Also, utilizing the
healthcare partners that are already invested in the country’s health care system to address
the shortage of health care providers is another method of building up the delivery of
health care services.
The advice to the Minister of Health would be to do a thorough assessment of the country’s
needs, strengths, and weaknesses, and while building upon local resources, consider
suggestions such as utilizing outside help to create a long-lasting healthcare system.
Mills, A., Klompas, M., Boulware, D. R., Larochelle, M. R., & London School of Hygiene
and Tropical Medicine. (2020, May 21). Health Care Systems in Low- and Middle-Income
Countries: NEJM.


Response to Post

Hello Lima,
I read your post and found it to be fascinating and illuminating. Your points are arranged
sequentially, and this enables a reader to understand the concepts you are discussing. I was
particularly drawn to your discussion about a unique healthcare system in middle-and low-
income countries. These nations typically have targeted external funding. The funding is aimed
at addressing a specific health concern. I believe the reason that these healthcare systems take
this form is that they are underdeveloped. They do not have sufficient resources, and staff hence
is susceptible to disease outbreaks (Basu et al., 2012).
Consequently, targeted funding is required to fight off these disease outbreaks. The only way this
occurrence can change is if middle-and low-income countries transform their approach towards
healthcare. They should look towards restructuring the health system, so they focus more on
prevention. Overall, your post was well-articulated.



Basu, S., Andrews, J., Kishore, S., Panjabi, R., & Stuckler, D. (2012). Comparative performance
of private and public healthcare systems in low-and middle-income countries: a
systematic review. PLoS medicine, 9(6).