Mood disorders in teenagers

ASSIGNMENT 2

LEARNING EXERCISE: PROFORMA

DIRECTIONS: Please follow the Assessment 2 instructions carefully. Type your answers straight into this document.

  1. USE APA STYLE REFERENCING TO PROVIDE DETAILS OF YOUR ARTICLE HERE (2 MARKS):

Short, M. A., & Louca, M. (2015). Sleep deprivation leads to mood deficits in healthy adolescents. Sleep Medicine, 16(2015), 987-993.

  • DESCRIBE THE MAIN PURPOSE OR PROBLEM PRESENTED IN THIS  ARTICLE (5 MARKS):

The purpose of the reported study was to examine the impact that sleep deprivation has on the mood and the psychological health of adolescents. The study also purposed to examine the impact of sleep deprivation on the regulation of mood among teenagers. An investigation of the interaction between the two phenomena is crucial in understanding the behavior expressed by teenagers who do not get enough sleep.

The researchers also purposed to determine experimentally the extent to which sleep disturbance interfere with mood in teenagers. The researchers noted that mood abnormalities are among mental disorders that have caused significant cases of mortality among adolescents, and therefore, studying sleep as an etiological factor would aid the diagnosis of the severer psychological ailments. The study further purposed to distinguish sleep deprivation from restriction as a causal factor for specific mood abnormalities. In defining, their study objectives and purpose, the researchers identified specific research gaps that they were to address.

  • LIST THE HYPOTHESES OR RESEARCH QUESTIONS (5 MARKS):
  1. Can sleep deprivation lead to mood disorders in teenagers?
  2. How can mood disturbance be measured in relation to sleep deprivation?
  3. What mood states affect sleep-deprived adolescents?
  4. Do different mood states vary ion their response to varying degrees of sleep loss?
  5. How do the effects of sleep deprivation compare across different subscales of mood disturbance throughout a period of 36 hours of wakefulness?
  6. What causes the variations reported in the pattern through which sleep affects varying subscales of mood disturbance?
  7. Does gender influence the effects of sleep deprivation on mood states among adolescents?
  • DESCRIBE  WHETHER  THIS  RESEARCH  COULD  BE  CLASSIFIED  AS  “LABORATORY” OR  “FIELD” RESEARCH (3 MARKS):

The study of interest was laboratory-based rather than field-based. Participants were assessed from a Sleep Research Center laboratory where they were made to stay awake for three consecutive nights. The methodology was the most effective in helping the researchers answer the study questions. The laboratory setting also allowed the scientist to control environmental factors such as temperature, sound, and light as these could have interfered significantly with the results obtained.

It was also easier to follow the study protocols in a laboratory than it would have been in a field setting. This is because the researchers would also control the behavior of study participants in addition to modifying the environment. Behavioral monitoring that was necessary includes restricting the use of stimulants or sedatives such as caffeine and sleeping pills respectively. Additionally, the approach increased the efficiency in which the researchers administered various sleep and mood tests to the study participants. These include the neurobehavioral test battery (NTB), Karolinska Sleep Scale, and polysomnography (PSG).

Timing for each of the tests was essential in promoting the consistency and reliability of findings. Laboratory research was also a suitable approach as it is associated with a higher degree of precision compared to field study (McLeod, 2012). Therefore, studies obtained from a laboratory test would be more reliable than those attained from field research (Kawecki et al., 2012). However, the laboratory setting could have modified the results significantly hence compromising the validity and generalizability of findings. For instance, researches in the experiment promoted the comfort of the environment by controlling disturbances. This approach could have deviated mood states of adolescents from what would have been the case in the natural or field setting.

  • DESCRIBE THE SAMPLE THAT WAS USED IN THIS RESEARCH (5 MARKS):

Twelve adolescent secondary school students in Australia constituted the study sample in the research of interest. They were aged between 14 and 18, and their mean age was 16.17 and a standard deviation of 0.83.The two genders were equally represented making it possible to adequately address gender as a valuable in the investigation. The participants had no known psychological or medical condition as was determined through self-reports and parent report surveys. Additionally, they were no medications as the use of certain drugs could interfere with sleeping and moods. So as to meet ethical requirements for scientific studies, the researchers secured informed consent from their subjects. Since the participants were minors, written consent was also obtained from their parents.

The sample was appropriate for the research. In addition to constituting the targeted population, it also reduced chances of confounding variables given that participants were health and on no medication. However, the sample size was relatively small, more so considering variables such as gender and the multiple mood disorders. Nevertheless, (Hamlin, 2010) noted that small samples are easy to manage and control. This could have been advantage for the study as it could have increased accuracy and precision, and hence, the reliability and validity of the research.

  • DESCRIBE THE TYPES OF METHODS THAT WERE USED  (5 MARKS):

Short and Louca (2015) measured mood status using Profiles of Mood States Questionnaire-Short Form (POMS-SF). The tool enabled the scientists to describe various mood states and classify them into six subscales. These included confusion, anxiety, fatigue, vigor, depressed mood, and anger. A Likert scale was also used whereby respondents indicated on the level to which they experienced various mood states on a scale of five points. A repeated measure plan was also employed in the study. In the design, day, time and sleep were used as the independent variables while the six subscales of mood were used as the dependent components. A Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey was also applied in screening the parents of the adolescents studied. Before undertaking the study, participants were advised to have maintained normal sleeping patterns for at least the last seven days. Wrist actigraphy, sleeping diaries, and time-stamped messages were used to monitor adherence to the specified sleeping patterns.

The tools applied in the study are recommended in investigating sleeping patterns as well as mood disorders. Chai-Coetzer et al. (2014) wrote that PSG is particularly important in investigations that involve more than one type of sleep-associated mood disorders. Continuous observation of participants’ behavior as reported in the study was also important in enhancing the efficiency of the research. The approach ensured that participants remained awake as needed.

  • DISCUSS THE RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS OF THIS RESEARCH (5 MARKS):

Short and Louca (2015) reported that participants slept for an average of 9 hours during two sleeping opportunities that were provided during the tree days of research. This was an indicator that the baseline sleeping opportunities were effective in ensuring that respondent had rested adequately prior to the sleep deprivation period. It was established that the six subscales of mood disorders worsened when adolescents were deprived of sleep as compared to the baseline times. Gender was also noted to influence the response of adolescents to sleep deprivation. Females were particularly reported to suffer more anxiety and depressed mood than their male counterparts. It was reported that males did not experience anxiety, though they had suffered significant depressed mood. Changes on the experience of confusion with sleep deprivation also varied between genders whereby females had a greater magnitude of change than males. The six mood subscales were also reported to vary differently in response to increasing sleep deprivation. Fatigue, confusion, and vigor had highest scores while depressed mood, anxiety, and anger had the least.

The findings adequately addressed the research questions. In addition to showing the correlation between sleeplessness and mood abnormalities, they enabled a comparison of these effects during normal and sleep-deprived states for both males and females. As Feldman and Wihbey (2015) reported, research studies should indicate significant differences across variables for them to be conclusive.

  • DESCRIBE YOUR OPINION OR REACTION TO THIS RESEARCH- BE CRITICAL IN AN OBJECTIVE AND SCIENTIFIC WAY (5 MARKS):

Short and Louca’s study met its objectives, and it was conducted scientifically. As such, the results obtained were conclusive, reliable, and generalizable. The study was informed by previous per-reviewed reports on experimental research from where various research gaps were identified. The purpose of the study, research questions, as well as the applied methodology was well defined. Consequently, the findings and conclusions made are of a sufficient degree of reliability. However, it is worth noting that the research faced significant limitations at various levels. Nevertheless, the researchers acknowledged the limitations, and therefore, the study could be referred by future scientist in conducting further studies on the subject.

It is also worth noting that the researchers while making logical reasoning used evidence from their study as well as other studies to back up their arguments. As Barkeley.edu (2016) reported, studies should advance the existing ones and also depict high-standards by outlining their structure appropriately for them to be significant in science. Finally, it should be noted that Short and Louca (2015) declared no conflicts of interest hence enhancing the reliability of their research.

References

Barkeley.edu (2016). Scrutinizing science: Peer review.

Chai-Coetzer, C., Douglas, J., McEvoy, D., Naughton, M., Neil, A., & Bhala, G. (2014). Guidelines for sleep studies. Retrieved from http://www.sleep.org.au/documents/item/1112

Feldman J., & Wihbey, J. (2015). Eight questions to ask when interpreting academic studies: A primer for media.

Hamlin, R. (2010). Why small samples can increase accuracy.

Kawecki, T. J., Lenski, R. E., Ebert, D., Hollis, B., Olivieri, S., & Whitlock, M. (2012). Experimental evolution. Trends in Science, 27(10), 547-560.

McLeod, S. (2012). Experimental method.

Short, M. A., & Louca, M. (2015). Sleep deprivation leads to mood deficits in healthy adolescents. Sleep Medicine, 16(2015), 987-993.

    Overall Grade and Comments from marker  References Barkeley.edu (2016). Scrutinizing science: Peer review. Chai-Coetzer, C., Douglas, J., McEvoy, D., Naughton, M., Neil, A., & Bhala, G. (2014). Guidelines for sleep studies. Feldman J., & Wihbey, J. (2015). Eight questions to ask when interpreting academic studies: A primer for media.sheets/research/interpreting-academic-studies-primer-media Hamlin, R. (2010). Why small samples can increase accuracy. Final00080.pdf Kawecki, T. J., Lenski, R. E., Ebert, D., Hollis, B., Olivieri, S., & Whitlock, M. (2012). Experimental evolution. Trends in Science, 27(10), 547-560. McLeod, S. (2012). Experimental method.ort, M. A., & Louca, M. (2015). Sleep deprivation leads to mood deficits in healthy adolescents. Sleep Medicine, 16(2015), 987-993.                        /35    
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