Managing Individual Behavior
Think about an experience you have had where you felt extremely motivated. Then, in a 5-
page paper, analyze this experience according to the Kolb format below. Each subtitle
represents a different section of the paper. You can use the subtitles as headings.
Introduction: Discuss the topic of the paper and how you will approach it. It is best to write
this section after you have written the rest of the paper.
Concrete Experience: Begin with a specific situation/event. Describe the experience where
you felt extremely motivated. Be objective and focus on just the facts: who, what, where,
when, and how – similar to how a newspaper article is written — as if you were composing a
Reflective Observation: Reflect upon that experience from the multiple perspectives of
other people involved or affected in the experience. Step back from the situation, look at
the experience from your own viewpoint, and the viewpoints of all other parties involved or
affected. You want to look at the circumstances surrounding the experience from every
relevant perspective. Why was the experience motivating to you? What did others do that
increased your motivation? Was the situation (or would the situation) also be motivating to
others? (Note: Your discussion of theories and models from your module materials belongs
in the following section.)
Abstract Conceptualization: Use critical thinking skills in order to understand and
interpret the experience at a deeper, more generalizable level. Interpret and understand
the events you have described by drawing on the concepts, theories, and models in the
background material from this module. What behavior patterns can you identify in
yourself and others that are similar to the ones described in the material on motivation,
values, and/or goals? How do these concepts and principles explain why you were
motivated? What general principles of motivation can you derive from this analysis? Be
sure to cite all references to concepts, ideas, and quotes you use that come from any outside
source. Be sure to apply at least three concepts, theories, and/or models and cite all
references to concepts, ideas, and/or quotes that you use from any outside source.
[This Abstract Conceptualization section is the “heart” of your paper. Using critical
thinking skills, provide a clear, specific discussion on the logic, theories, and models and
how they apply to your experience.]
Active Experimentation: Identify ways to respond to the next occurrence of a similar
experience. How are you going to put what you have learned to use? How will you use this
knowledge to motivate yourself and others? What actions will you take to create a work
environment that is motivating?
Conclusion: Sum up the main points of your analysis and the key learnings you are taking
Reference List: List all references that you have cited in the paper using APA formatting.
References include materials from the required background readings as well as any outside
Internet or library sources you used in researching and writing your paper. If you have
APA questions, refer to the optional listings on the Background page.
MANAGING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR 2
Achieving goals by organizations and individuals is not an easy task. Several challenges
may hinder one from achieving their goals. Lack of motivation and lack of job satisfaction are
some of the contributing factors to failure in the organizations. The teams should look for ways
of motivating their employees to improve their performance. Employees’ performance
determines the firm’s success; it is, therefore, necessary to ensure that the workers are satisfied
and motivated to help them perform well. This essay will discuss different theories of motivation
and their application in real life situations.
Working in the same organization with a friend can sometimes be fun and challenging at
the same time. Alice was a close friend and a schoolmate; we had known each other since
childhood. It was evident that even though we were friends, Alice was different; she was more
hard working and always aspired to be the best in whatever she did. On the contrary, I was not
that passionate about work, all I cared about was having fun, the job was just a way of earning
something to make me have money to spend on my fun.After a few years of employment in the
organization, Alice got the promotion while I remained in the same position. Her life became
better than it was, her circle of friends also changed, this was so shocking, but I had to accept the
truth. We had nothing in common and could not fit as friends anymore. Her lifestyle also
changed since a higher position meant a higher salary which is always every employee’s dream.
The change was the wake-up call; I had to do something to get Alice back as a friend and to fit in
her social circle.
Escalating to this level meant I had to work harder and stop some of the beliefs I had. The
faith in the fun without hard work had to go. Alice’s achievement motivated me to work hard,
and I started having a different view of my job. I worked harder to be where Alice was, with time
MANAGING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR 3
it became a habit since hard work had become part of me. It was no longer a way of matching up
to Alice but a habit I could not get off me.
The motivation one gets from others when trying to compete with them is healthy in the
workplace. The cause of motivation will be encouraged to work harder than before not to be
defeated or to stay on top. The one who was motivated will also put more effort to reach the
other person’s level. Motivation from others is good since it can also make the others to start
working hard to be like the two who are competing to be the best.
Major process theories of motivation state that conscious human decision processes are
what causes motivation in individuals (Theories of motivation, 2015). The ideas determine how a
person’s behavior is keyed up, and preserved in the mainly resolved and self-directed human
cognitive processes. This experienced can be explained using the expectancy theory which
suggested that people tend to choose work behaviors that they believe lead to results that they
value. These individuals decide on how much effort to put into a work practice. To make these
decisions, they always consider their expectancy, instrumentality, and valence (Theories of
In the experience, expectancy was found since there was a belief that by putting more
efforts one would perform to a given level (Theories of motivation, 2015). Since there was a
need to achieve what the other had achieved and the only way of doing this was through putting
more effort in work and doing all that is possible to meet the expectation.
Instrumentality can explain the reason why one can work harder; the belief that hard
work can lead to particular outcomes or rewards (Theories of motivation, 2015). There was a
need to be at the same level as the motivator and to be in Alice’s circle of friends hence this
MANAGING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR 4
would be the reward of putting more effort in one’s work. The award makes one motivated with
the outcome in mind. Setting goals can make workers in an organization perform better since
they have a target in mind.
The valence which is the degree to which the outcomes are attractive or unattractive also
acted as a motivation (Theories of motivation, 2015). By working harder and achieving the best
it would be easier to get the friendship back since the one motivated may get the promotion like
the friend and be in the circle of friends again because they would be at the same level. The
behavior that had made them stop being friends will no longer exist.
The three factors influenced the motivation since they were all high which is expected to
lead to motivation. It can also be of help to organization leaders to encourage the workers to put
more effort since the effort will result in improved performance which in turn results in a valued
reward (Theories of motivation, 2015). Other employees may also get the motivation to improve
their output with the reward of it in mind.
The drive in this experience is the outcome of the activity to be carried out. When the
expected results are positive, people tend to get motivated thus improving their performance.
According to the goal- setting theory by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham, goals are the most
important factors affecting motivation and behavior of the employees (Theories of motivation,
2015). It highlights the significance of specific and strict goals in accomplishing the motivated
conduct. Goals are an important part of an achievement, and this is why one needs to set up goals
before embarking on their performance (Theories of motivation, 2015). The goals will lead on to
do what he expects to help them achieve what the desire. The goals always entail quantitative
targets for improvement in a behavior of interest.
MANAGING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR 5
Reaching Alice’s level was not easy at all it needed a lot of effort which leads to the necessity to
have specific goals. Achieving this target was not simple, and this motivated me to work extra
hard to make this.
Goal commitment is a major factor that helps one get more dedicated to achieving the
goal hence motivation to put more effort towards achieving the goal (Theories of motivation,
2015). The employees should take part in goal setting to help increase their level of goal
commitment. Self- efficacy is another driving factor that can help one respond positively to
specific and challenging goals. It is the belief that people have that they can perform a given task
(Theories of motivation, 2015).
By setting goals and believing in my efforts, I was motivated to put more effort in y performance
which resulted in the achievement of my goal. Without the goals and self- efficacy I could not
have made it to where my friend was.
This experience was a good one since it led to a change of behavior in an individual.
Those who work harder in an organization should be rewarded to motivate those who are not
achievers (Theories of motivation, 2015). By doing this everyone in the firm will aspire to
improve their performances to get rewarded like their colleagues (Theories of motivation, 2015).
If such an experience occurs again, it will be wise to set the goals to achieve what the others have
The organizations can motivate the employees through rewarding and encouraging them.
Job satisfaction can also lead to motivation; the management should ensure that the employees
are satisfied in their jobs as this will lead to motivation to achieve more (Redmond & Bower,
2015). By applying the reinforcement theory, the organization leaders can motivate the workers
MANAGING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR 6
to improve their performance by rewarding the positive behaviors and punishing the negative
behaviors (Theories of motivation, 2015). The action by the leaders will help create a healthy
working environment where everyone is motivated to work harder (Redmond & Bower, 2015).
The experience can act as a lesson to leaders in that they should be aware that their
actions or performance can serve as a motivation to others (Hay Group, 2012). They should,
therefore, aspire to be outstanding performers in their jobs since they act as a motivation to their
subordinates (Carpenter et.al, 2016). Employees can also work hard to help those who are not
hard workers to emulate them whenever they see their achievements.
Ever organization should strive to ensure that their employees are satisfied in their jobs to
prevent absenteeism and turnover which might negatively impact them. Job satisfaction leads to
motivation which in return enhances performance at the workplace. The employees can be
motivated by their colleagues or the organization itself if the managers employ ways of
reinforcing the motivation. They can achieve this by rewarding those who perform well in their
duties. The employees should be self-motivated instead of getting motivation from others as this
will help them set their own goals which will be easy to achieve. Motivation is the only way an
organization can meet its aims; by motivating the employees, they will be willing to improve
MANAGING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR 7
Carpenter, M. A., Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (2016). Principles of management. Irvington, N.Y.: