Identify the major surface muscles located in the body. Where are the origins and
insertions of these muscles? List the intended actions as well as an exercise or movement
for each. A minimum of fifteen muscles is required.
Major surface muscles
Our bodies have different muscles that have different origins and insertions that help in
the body movement. These muscles are classified based on the body part they are found.
Examples of abdominals muscles include internal obliques, external obliques, rectus abdominus
and transverse abdominus (carol para. 9). These muscles are located on the front side of the
torso. These muscles insert along the pelvis and they originate along the ribcage. The function of
rectus abdominus also called six-pack is to flex the spine and it is exercised by performing
abdominal crunches. Internal and external obliques on the other hand, are used to rotate the
spine and to bend it sideways and are exercised by doing cross over crunches or by doing lateral
flexion exercises undertaken by holding dumbbells. Transverse muscles wrap horizontally round
abdominal area, are located under the abdominal muscles, act as a girdle by supporting the spine
and posture maintenance, and are exercised by probing planks.
Another category of muscles is gluteals, which includes gluteus minimus, gluteus
maximus and gluteus medius. The three muscles originate from pelvic bone. Gluteus maximus
inserts to the rear of the femur and is response for hip extension. On the other hand, gluteus
medius and minimus insert to the side of the femur and help in hip abduction. These muscles are
exercised by doing squats and side squats with dumbbells.
Hamstrings muscles include semimembranosus, biceps femoris and semimembranosus
and are located on the posterior back of a person thigh. They originate underneath the gluteus
maximus on the pelvic bone and they insert on the shin (tibia). These muscles help in bending
the knees and are exercised by doing or performing leg curls on leg curl machine. Another
category is quadriceps, which includes, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis and
vastus intermedius. These muscles are located on interior front of thighs and originate from the
top of femur (long bone of the uppers section of the leg) and they insert at the front of tibia.
Rectus femoris originates from the hipbone (pelvis and crosses the hip joint (Carol para. 7).
These muscles extend the knee and are exercised by performing the leg extensions on a machine
(leg extension). Gastrocnemius also called calf muscles are found at the back of lower limb.
They originate behind the knee on the femur and inserts at the heel of the foot with the Achilles
tendon; they help to elevate the heel when an individual stands on toes and are exercised by
standing toes, which rises with dumbbells.
Carol, Ann. Major Muscles of the human body. Web. 24/3/2011.