Case Study Project is based on
I. “Development Through Life: A Psychosocial approach” ISBN-13: 978-1-285-45996-7 (12
Edition) Newman and Newman and an accompanying Case Book
II. “Life Span Development: A Case Book” by ISBN-13:978-0-534-59767-2
III. All write up is APA Style, Times New Roman Font Double spaced and ensure to
provide in-text citation of the page numbers of the book: Development Through Life: A
- Case Study 1 – 8 pages: Chapter 7 of Development Through Life: A Psychosocial
approach (pgs. 237-279)
a. Case 2: Delaney Goes to Kindergarten (pages 87-93) in Life Span Development: A Case
Book and answer the developmental analysis, contextual analysis, and psychosocial
- Case Study 2 – 5 pages: Chapter 8 of Development Through Life: A Psychosocial
approach (pgs. 281-279)
a. Case 3: The Basketball Player (pages 114-117) in Life Span Development: A Case Book
and answer the developmental analysis, contextual analysis and psychosocial analysis
Life Span Development (4-6 years)
The age of 4 to 6 years is when most of the children, especially in America, start the first phase
of school life. Starting school for a kid brings in new experiences; expansion of the child’s social
world involves encounters with new adults and fellow kids. This was also when new social
norms and expectations began to make sense to a kid. It is during this age when a kid learns and
gains the ability to apply knowledge. Overall, these are changes that have a significant effect on
the child’s self-concept. The period of early school age introduces children to new complexities
of life, which form the first foundation of problem-solving skills. The cognitive abilities of a
child start being prominent during this period. In most cases, the preschools (nursery and early
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childhood programs) are designed to prepare children for future events expected to be faced in
higher-level schooling. The school environment provides a child with new information,
opportunities, and chances of either failure or success in life.
Case -Delaney Goes to Kindergarten
Like many other American children, Delaney Goes to Kindergarten, where her expectations are
blown away by the fast-moving activities around him and school. For two years, Delaney
attended the preschool program, which was aimed at preparing him for school. Going to school
is a big event for her, but leaving behind the comfort of home and adapting to the new school is
The teacher makes suggestions of Delaney going back to preschool for a year. This is a decision
faulted by her former preschool teacher, who suggests that Delaney only needs close to follow up
and interventions. She provides the guidelines of the interventions she had used previously to the
new school teacher. After a few weeks of applying these interventions, Delaney’s attitude
towards school changes and vast improvement is noted.
Delaney’s ability to make friends is an indicator of his abilities to fit within a social setting and,
most importantly, understand the role of friends in the development of self-concept. The school
makes her feel a grown-up, but a glimpse of the adult world and responsibilities makes her want
to remain a kid. She is becoming aware of some of the choices only she can make and wants to
explore that part of her that makes her happy. As a child, she experiences life just like any other
kids, with the only notable difference being her abilities to handle anxiety and stressful
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- How would you characterize Delaney’s temperament?
Delaney’s temperament can be characterized as the absence of parental emotional support or
insecure. Delaney is used to closing up attention at the preschool; her teacher always provided
extra emotional support through the time the two spent together and little responsibilities such as
wiping tables. If Delaney’s mum were available, the most appropriate tasks for her age would be
wiping tables. The other person she was close to is her dad, who is always not at the school.
This gave the teacher a chance to create a form of maternal bond that Delaney was lacking.
When she joined full-time kindergarten, the emotional support she got from her former teacher is
all gone. She has to learn to make new friends in the absence of her dad and teacher. The mum is
not available to bridge that gap. The withdrawals from school are signs of a child struggling to fit
in and with the most probable trigger being the absence of maternal care.
- Explain Delaney’s behavior and how they fit with secure and insecure attachment in
Delaney’s participation in class is minimal, and Delaney’s anxiety about seeing her father is the
reason behind this. Delaney had to cling on her father every morning; she was dropped off at
school, but due to the teachers’ interventions, she now ignores her dad when he comes to pick her
up. Her participation in class improved, and she made a few friends. However, her participation
in school starts declining, and the dad reports to the school teacher about Delaney’s aggression
Over the years, there have been many theories seeking to explain how babies and children grow
from once stage in life and develop into healthy, happy, and knowledgeable adults. Initially,
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Sigmund Freud suggested that human beings have to pass through psychosexual stages where
they focus their energy on specified erogenous zones of the body. However, it is Erikson who
modified Sigmund Freud’s ideas by suggesting psychosocial development(Orth, Robins
&Widaman, 2012). According to Erikson, the social interactions and the successful completion
of everyday tasks highly contribute to the shaping of an individual’s sense of self. The
psychosocial theory assumes that human beings can contribute to their psychological
development at every stage of life. People can prepare, integrate, and organize based on
conceptualized experiences to develop coping and mitigation mechanisms to deal with stressful
situations. For the case of Delaney, preschool prepared her for school, but breaking the bond
between her and the dad is ultimately a new experience that makes her insecure. She has to learn
how to balance between lacking the mum, having friends, teachers, and other students. Anxious-
resistant is the best category match for this kind of attachment
- What might Delaney’s father be like that could help to account for Delaney’s
Delaney’s father should consider exposing her daughter to more female figures. she is responsive
to female figures once a bond is created. Her insecurities seem to disappear once she can
rediscover her self-concept. Therefore, letting Delaney spend time with female figures helps her
develop an association of belonging, which is a vital element in boosting her self-confidence.
- What process is being used by Miss Jessica to help Delaney cope with school?
Miss Jessica understands that Delaney is missing the maternal element. She is not very active in
class because she is used to being with her dad. Giving her developmental tasks opens a whole
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new world for Delaney that she never got to have. She focuses her energy on creating value in
her involvement with the teacher.
- What may developmental tasks from toddlerhood help Delaney adapt to the school
environment over time?
Church or places of worship is where kids get to meet other kids if they are not in school. Parks
and other children’s recreational facilities offer kids the chance to meet other kids and somehow
make friends. In the case of Delaney, being a member of a Sunday school class is a
developmental task that will enable her to adapt to school.
- What conditions might result in Delaney being raised by a single father?
In the modern-day world, divorce cases have been escalating, and it is so unfortunate that
millions of children have been caught up in this web. The overall impact on that becomes evident
when counselors and therapists encounter cases of patients who are afraid to be in relationships
because their parents are divorced. A child needs to have a happy family around to develop into a
responsible adult who understands family values. The development of love perceptions at this
age forms the foundation of future relationships.
- What are some of the new demands of a classroom setting that might stimulate a
child’s attachment anxiety?
In a classroom setting, some types of attachment anxieties have no interventions; they need
therapeutic interventions where the child is provided with a platform of expressing her/himself
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without the fear of crowd or judgment. The most a classroom can do is simulating home setting
themes and virtually creating environments that stimulate kid’s reactions.
- Was Delaney emotionally and developmentally ready to attend kindergarten? How
would you evaluate this? What are some of the behavioral indicators that suggest
Children display an array of emotions when they show concern for others. Children start caring
for others apart from themselves; it is a sign of emotional and cognitive development. Making
friends is a process that children have to recognize because; they have to make friends of their
liking and not just anybody. The fact that Delaney was able to make friends and show
recognition for them shows she is ready for school. Children can also show signs of emotional
development when they show recognition of bad behaviors. Children who display feelings of
remorse when a moral principle has been violated are said to be developing to responsible adults
(Orth, Robins &Widaman, 2012). A child needs to have a happy family around in order to
develop into a responsible adult who understands family values. The development of love
perceptions at this age forms the foundation of future relationships.
- Summarize what you think are the main problems facing Delaney, her father, and the
LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT 7
The main problem facing them is the lack of parental support for Delaney. The teacher and the
father have to work extra hard to fill the maternal gap. This explains why Delaney craves for
- In what ways may Delaney feel a sense of guilt about her new surroundings? Could
Delaney’s hesitation be associated with feelings of guilt?
What it means to be a right person for Delaney is something she is learning. This is because;
there is so much that entails being the right person and not just merely being a child who does
not do certain things. Unlike adults who worry about abortion, cloning, or in the case of students,
plagiarism, kids worry about understanding the basic life principles like the meaning and purpose
of telling the truth. According to Newman & Newman (2017), during this period of early school
(4-6 years), children have to learn and understand the moral codes and behaviors that govern
society. Children have to understand the difference in what is termed morally wrong or right.
Hurting others, making fun of others, sharing, cheating, stealing, and bullying are behaviors
children learn at this age. If a child displays such behaviors, this is a clear indication of a
psychological problem that needs intervention.
The interventions will be in the form of seeking a deeper understanding of the reasons behind
the child’s behaviors. Kids of age between 4-6 years sometimes engage in behaviors without the
knowledge of differentiating what is morally accepted in groupings and at home. Moral
development focuses on how kids learn and adopt moral standards in their behaviors. Delaney’s
understanding of moral standards and application clearly shows how he behaves and responds to
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- How would you evaluate Delaney’s attempt at initiative within her kindergarten
Delaney is more than willing to take the initiative to make new friends, but her efforts are
frustrated by a lack of confidence. Her definition of self-concept is yet to actualize into
something that makes her confident despite not having a mum. She attempts to make initiatives
by speaking about the lack of a friend’s presence.
- In what ways do the physical and social environments of preschool differ from that of
In preschool, the teacher has the capability of dealing with individual pupils one at a time. Not so
much is required for kids to learn in preschool, unlike kindergarten, where actual learning takes
place. The kindergarten teacher cannot afford to provide individual attention to every kid and
thus making it difficult for kids who desire more attention. Kindergarten and preschool are
similar to the friends whom kids make early on the move to kindergarten at the same time.
- How does the teacher-student ratio of 1:24 affect transition?
Kids need individual attention, especially during the transition, in order to handle emerging
issues. Without a teacher to offer attention, most of the kids may strain to cope in such a class.
Therefore, high ratios of the teacher to student compromise the effectiveness of transition
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- How a child’s self-concept might be challenged during school transitions?
Delaney’s ability to attend school is the first indicator of development. Children between the age
of 4 to 6 years are considered to be school going kids. Children have been accorded to the
universal right of education, and it is within the practice of many countries that children have to
attend school. In the case of Delaney, beginning kindergarten is a stage in life that will always
remain significant throughout her life. At kindergarten, Delaney is constructing an overview of
how the world is structured and how different elements in life fit in and the reasons they have to
Mostly, early school-age children display a wide range of curiosity in almost all aspects of life.
The self-concept of a child has to change as the child realizes with the reality of life happenings
and events. The child’s self-concept is transformed as influenced by the school environment and
the interaction between various groups of people (Newman & Newman, (2017). The new
independence of thought development in a child triggers the child to have a sense of freedom
and, in some cases, rebellion. When the child becomes aware of alternatives, the most likely
reaction for a child is asking the difference between the alternatives. Asking many questions in a
child is critical in the development of system beliefs and cultural values/norms.
- How does the experience of success and confidence through small changes contribute
to a sense of confidence and self-esteem in Delaney?
Delaney’s life experiences are limited, and everything in this world seems compelling or
introducing new ways of doing things. Life events and happenings have built up curiosity for
Delaney, and answering some the triggering life questions consumes a lot of her energy. There
are so many ideas and feelings intertwined with her, and this is a process of lifespan
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development that marks the foundation of a child’s belief systems. If she feels excluded, through
the involvement of small tasks like wiping lunch tables makes her feel needed. The one on one
interaction with the teacher allows Delaney to speak up and let go of her fears and reasons why
she is holding back. When she realizes the school is another place where she gets to do other
stuff, it boosts her confidence and role in the school environment. Kids want to have a story of
what he or she did at school; it is a sign of inclusion and being valued. Kids who do not
participate in school and do not play any roles have low self-esteem and self-value.
- Imagine the transition was not handled effectively. What might have been the
consequences for Delaney and her future outlook on schooling?
When we all grow up, our memories as children are the mirror that reflects how we behave like
adults and, more importantly, treat others. A child at the age of 4-6 years learns from everyone
he or she interacts with. For Delaney, if the transition were not handled effectively, the possible
consequences for future schooling would be the development of a negative attitude towards
school. She would probably grow feeling like she was forced to go to school against her wishes.
A child will not shy away asking a stranger a question, but if the parent or the guardian or
teacher tells the child doing that is wrong, that child will live knowing that asking a stranger a
question is wrong. Effective transition is of critical importance in order to help kids clarify the
existence of various notions. We learn through sharing and exchanging information; therefore,
by asking the right questions, a child can understand the essence of the school. In the case of
such a child, he or she might have the gift of intelligence and his/her desire to know how, why,
and what might be the reason he or she is always asking questions.
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- What would you do to preserve and foster a child’s sense of initiative and purpose?
The choices that a child makes as early as four years olds have a direct link with his/her future
life events. School is a source of influence; a school is a place where kids learn and develop new
aspirations. This is the period most of the kids start saying they want to be so, and so, some will
want to be doctors, police people, superman, and any other figure that with a certain level of
influence over their lives. It also happens that the beliefs and practices that are followed at home
may be challenged in school by teachers or fellow kids. School plays an all-inclusive purpose
where children learn to differentiate between life realities. The best way to preserve and foster a
child’s sense of initiative and purpose is by giving them a choice to be.
- Describe how multiple systems (home and school) could work together to help ease
transitions for Delaney in future academic transitions?
Knowledge- The process of learning the moral code of family traditions, values, community
functions, and the essential ability to make judgments is highly dependent on the kind of
interactions the child has with family, friends, community members, and other people. Children
simulate what adults do in their actions. Most children understand what to do in an event sure
thing happens. For example, if a child has always been taught to move away from the windows
whenever it is raining, he or she will take that as the right code of action of safety against rain.
The knowledge reinforces her or his self-concept that she or he can help herself. Children want
to be heroes, and if he can save himself from a situation, that is a life skill that will remain with
him for the rest of his lifespan. People never forget to do what they were taught to do when they
were kids. Everyone has a story to tell about childhood, and it is the work of psychologists to
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find indicators that may trigger future problems or current, causing the patient to express
- Evaluate this case from the perspectives; the needs of developing children, the
demands and activities of schooling, and the meaning of school to children and
Action-children have the habit of taking actions when a negative form of feeling is inflicted on
them. Action is also an aspect that becomes evident when children act following set rules and
requests. A child that obeys parents and teachers, a child who does not fight other kids and
understands the essence of basic life principles, is a well-mannered kid. In the case of such a kid,
the reality of achieving a happy life, and a few psychological problems in the future is assured. A
well-mannered kid is an indication of good parenting and education.
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Newman, B. M. (2003). Life span Development: A case book. Southbank, Vic:
Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2017). Development through life: A psychosocial approach.
Orth, U., Robins, R. W., &Widaman, K. F. (2012). Lifespan development of self-esteem and its
effects on important life outcomes.Journal of personality and social psychology, 102(6),