Life Span development

The required text is, “Development Through Life: A Psychosocial approach” (12 Edition, I
have attached 11th edition)
1.1 Page: Read Chapter 11 of the required text and answer the questions associated with
The Best Valentines Day Case Study in the textbook on page 444. (Photocopy attached)
2.1 Page: Read Chapter 12 of the required text and “Describe some of the conditions that
have occurred over the past 25 years that have changed the work environment for
American workers. What are your conclusions about the implications of these changes for
development into middle adulthood? What are the characteristics of the work environment
that are most likely to foster intellectual growth, job satisfaction and the ability to
effectively balance work and family life?”
3.3 Pages: For 3 fathers in different stages of parenting (Toddlerhood: Ages 2 to 4 Years,
Later Adolescence:18-24 Years, Middle Adulthood (34 to 60 Years) discuss with the
following: Parenting continues throughout life, with an alliance of parenting that values
parenting skills between partners. What multidimensional role do fathers play? What
impact does value as a marital partner and father often have on stress at work? What
changes over time take place in parenting roles? How do these changes affect mothers and
fathers differently?’ Discuss these questions in 500-750 words, double spaced, in Times
New Roman font.
The ONLY reference for this project is the required text which means the writer should
spend time read and apply the principles to answer these questions. If the writer is inclined
to source additional materials it should not be more than two; the focus is this book.
Citation: In-text citation with page numbers of the required text is required for all the


The Best Valentine’s Day Case Study

  1. Describe how society creates a particular meaning about romantic love in the way
    valentine’s day is marketed and promoted.
    According to the social theory concepts, individuals make personal decisions based on the adult
    roles associated with certain expectations for their behaviors (Newman & Newman, 2014; p.
    430). In this case, creating meaning about romantic love in a society based on the way valentine’s
    day is marketed and promoted can be determined by social theory concepts. The case study on
    the best valentines’ day indicates that valentine’s day is sold and developed in different ways in
    the form of gifts of various kinds. For instance, some gift companies use packs of hearts with “be


mine” on them, others use cards with love messages in them, and others use sweet tarts packages
specially packaged for this day (Newman & Newman, 2014; p, 444). Therefore, based on
individual experience in life and their upbringing, society can create different meanings of
romantic love in the way valentine’s day is marketed and promoted. In society, personal
experience plays a vital role in the way people make their decisions in life. Therefore, people can
decide whether they will be influenced by the different ways valentine’s day is promoted. For
instance, in this case, the woman does not tolerate valentine’s day regardless of the various gifts
used to support this day; this is because she believes that some of the women who receive such
gifts on this day have fallen prey to emotional stress. On the other hand, society can use the
different promotion approaches such as candy and flowers for valentine’s day to create the
meaning of romantic love. It means that an organization can use these promotions to create a
whole different sense of love bring healing to broken relationships (Newman & Newman, 2014;
p. 444).

  1. What is your reaction to valentine’s day? Reflect on how you have felt about this
    day in childhood, adolescence, and now. What about valentine’s day do you
    associate with positive or negative thoughts and feelings?
    I have reacted differently to valentine’s day holiday during the different developmental stages of
    my life based on the difference in feelings. For instance, during my childhood, I felt that this day
    did not have any significant meaning in my life because I had not developed any meaningful
    feelings about romantic love. The adolescent stage is more explorative in terms of romance than
    other developmental stages. During my teenage phase, I grew more meaning with valentine’s day
    because I had the opportunity to meet physical attraction-valued behavior (Newman & Newman,
    2014; p. 441). I grew more attracted to the opposite sex, and valentine’s day became an important


holiday for me because I took the opportunity of the gifts used to market this day to please my
partner and romantically expressed my feelings towards them.
Nevertheless, what is different now that I am in my adulthood stage is that I have developed a
passion for the valentine’s day because I have experienced different interpretations of what love
is based on personal experience. I do not feel that valentine’s day has significant meaning
because love is based on individual emotions and should be expressed all the time and not on a
single day in the year. I associate valentine’s day with some negative thoughts whereby people
use this day to cover for the wrongs in their relationships. Instead of solving their mistakes, they
hide behind valentine’s day to give their partners gifts that might not symbolize what they feel.

  1. From what you have read, describe the characteristics of her significant partner
    that make his especially appealing to her. What needs does he fulfill?
    From the study, there is an indication that the significant other has an appealing character that
    has made her change her feeling and meaning towards valentine’s day. One of the characters is
    that he did not decide to buy a gift without consulting her; instead, he wanted to bring what she
    loves (Newman & Newman, 2014; p. 444). On the other hand, he understood that love should
    not be expressed only on valentine’s day, using dozens of lowers, love notes, and other forms of
    gifts; instead, he believes that love should be expressed any day and any time. Therefore,
    sending romantic messages or poems any day of the year can bring a whole different feeling,
    which is more realistic, unique, and essential (Newman & Newman, 2014; p, 444). Based on the
    fulfillment theories, he fulfills the needs of emotional challenges. His partner develops a sense of
    purpose and meaning towards the valentine’s day and also helped solve her misery about this day
    as she realized that love could be expressed any day using different approaches such as poems.



  1. What kinds of behavior are most likely to result in a deepening attraction and
    emotional commitment? What actions are most likely to disrupt or terminate a
    relationship at this stage?
    The process in adulthood relationship formation is understood through attachment theory, which
    indicates that one’s ability to sustain a relationship depends on aspects such as emotional
    disclosure (Newman & Newman, 2014; p, 466). In this case, attraction and passionate
    commitment will most likely be deepened by the alleged partner’s behavior of showing his
    romantic love in a different way and during different times of the year. On the other hand, her
    emotional stability and lack of expectations for valentine’s day will play a key role in depending
    on attraction in this relationship (Newman & Newman, 2014; p, 466). At this stage, the link is at
    its initial stages and, therefore, can be disrupted or terminated by the attachment typology of
    dismissing avoidant individuals. In this case, the woman has a positive model of herself but a
    negative model of others (Newman & Newman, 2014; p, 466); this is based on her feeling that
    some women are treated with gifts on valentine’s day, and the following day they end up being
    Some of the conditions that have occurred over the past 25 years that have changed the
    work environment for American workers
    The work environment in America has changed over the years due to various factors, such as
    policies and practices. Workers have to endure long working hours with reduced benefits
    (Newman & Newman, 2014; p, 483); this has resulted in working strain as middle-aged workers
    have to work in more than one job. The framework of systems theory indicates that there are
    increased expectations based on reciprocity between individual growth and work experiences
    whereby people are expected to enter specific careers depending on their values, knowledge, and


abilities (Newman & Newman, 2014; p, 483). There also changes in the competence level
required in the work environment; this has resulted in work environment reorganization
companies; this is due to various factors such as the emergence of new technologies and
increased use of the internet for communication and completion of various. Therefore, they
reduce the number of available positions and require employees to be more flexible in the sense
that they can be productive in different areas within the organization (Newman & Newman,
2014; p, 483).
Due to increased globalization American work environment has continued to experience changes
in work and occupation settings whereby organizations are working towards meeting the new
demands for advanced skills. It led to establishing a relationship between intellectual flexibility
and substantive complexity (Newman & Newman, 2014; p. 486). On a similar note, due to the
reduced benefits, middle adults have been subjected to taking up two jobs, which might affect
their family formation process (Newman & Newman, 2014; p, 483). On the other hand, family
roles in families have changed, and both partners in this developmental stage are being forced to
work to have reasonable living standards (Newman & Newman, 2014; p, 490). There is also an
impact on the cost of living associated with the changes faced by the middle adulthood
development stage. The cost of living such a housing, healthcare, and education has continued to
increase due to reduced benefits for American workers. There is also the need to develop a
higher competence level and development of skills that meet the demand requirements that have
continued to grow significantly in different industries.
On the other hand, work environments that are most likely to help employees create a balance
between work and family should consider the following concepts. These concepts include role
overload, role spillover, and role conflicts (Newman & Newman, 2014; p. 490). Workplaces


should be able to have favorable working hours that allow employees to remain productive and,
at the same time, have space for their families. It can be achieved through role distribution and
understanding of different cultural roles. So, duties and responsibilities can be assigned to ensure
that employees, such as women, have time to take care of their children and


Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2014). Development through life: A psychosocial
approach. Cengage Learning.