Interventions and Diagnostic Tools for Managing Diabetes

Identify a research or evidence-based article that focuses comprehensively on a specific
intervention or diagnostic tool for the treatment of diabetes in adults or children.
In a paper of 750-1,000 words, summarize the main idea of the research findings for a
specific patient population. Research must include clinical findings that are current,
thorough, and relevant to diabetes and the nursing practice.

Interventions and Diagnostic Tools for Managing Diabetes


According to Fisher and Dickinson’s article ‘New Technologies to Advance Self-
Management Support in Diabetes,’ novel use of the existing communication modes and utilizing
novel technologies is exceptionally vital in improving care delivery in diabetic patients. A patient
group that had been controlled poorly had care brought to them successfully through live
telephone calls. Other forms of technology-based strategies involve the use of web-based
programs, pagers, internet, telephone, mobile communicators, and email to monitor as well as
assess the health status of patients, address their behaviors and symptoms, and promote
transformations in different disease management aspects, that is, better glycemic control and
medication adherence.

The role of the new technologies

Basically, the emerging systems are essential in that they allow expansion of SMS (Self-
management support) programs. This mainly deals with strategies that offer patients with the
essential support, tools, and information necessary for caring for their health challenges. The
development and utilization of a wide array of interventions that encompass new media promotes
the expansion of evidence-based intervention and monitoring methods (Fisher & Dickinson,
2011). These have been applied in clinical settings as well as real-world environments with
respect to the patient’s cultural settings, age, and lifestyle.

The new technologies are founded on the underlying assumption that these programs can
be particularly sustainable, convenient in regard to time and costs, and successful as opposed to
the traditional approaches (Ellrodt et al., 1997). Moreover, they have a high potential for
reaching patient populations that are highly vulnerable but do not seek regular doctor care.
Another important point that is worth noting is that the SMS programs differ in
complexity; there are modest telephone-based programs that are used for monitoring symptoms
and highly comprehensive web-based programs that help patients in improving self-care
gradually. These programs are very popular and there are concerns regarding their practical
usability, effectiveness, sustainability, and cost, which makes nurses to consider the use of the
programs for general use and more specifically, caring for diabetic patients. Owing to the fact
that there are various technological SMS programs that are evidence-based and currently
available, there is a dire need to establish a criterion for practical clinical care.

The targeted patients

It is extremely important that a specific patient population is identified when using SMS
programs. This ensures better outcomes, higher rate of acceptance, and minimal attrition. If SMS
interventions are tailored with particular patient groups, there is a higher probability of acquiring
more positive results. These programs yield better outcomes if adult patients who were
controlled poorly, fail to attend care regularly, from a lone ethnic group, and those from a
respected union/ institution are included (American Diabetes Association, 2002). The union is
used as a trusted and common institution for promoting reach and cultural cues are essential in
engaging the patients (Ellrodt et al., 1997).
Following these efforts, success was evident through relatively low attrition and high
patient uptake. The choice of media should be done keenly. Several factors need to be considered

when considering the utilization of novel technologies; level of risk, severity of the symptoms
and disorder, level of education, ethnicity, sex, age, and preference and experience with various

Integrating the SMS program into ongoing clinical care of diabetic patients
A majority of the present SMS programs are considered to be free-standing. This implies
that they cannot be integrated easily into electronic heath records in offices and automated care
systems. Alternatively, patients seek for them individually and, therefore, the SMS activity is
totally segregated from care team. Furthermore, some SMS programs are provided by health
insurance plans or an employer in the absence of a direct linkage with a diabetes care team. With
this in mind, there is a need to offer more informed and coordinated services. This is founded on
the argument that patients are more likely to continue with SMS programs that are closely linked
to health care practices (Fisher & Dickinson, 2011). Diabetes SMS programs ought to be linked
to a wider patient care system so that providers and patients have full information in regard to
SMS activities. This also ensures that care is fully integrated and coordinated.
American Diabetes Association (2002) asserts that the adoption of SMS systems that
utilize novel technologies requires a keen work flow consideration. In this regard, it is imperative
to consider collection of information gathered from the system, how to summarize, and use it in
clinical settings. Other key factors to consider include the professionals who will monitor the
patient SMS activities generated from the program, documenting the information in medical
records, and summarizing it for consequent clinical encounters.

SMS information goes with high staff demands in that they have to integrate immense
clinical information that is necessary for promoting good diabetes care. There is a pressing need
for population-based and cost-effective care that focuses on individual diabetes patient needs.
Therefore, health care professionals need to be more proactive in customizing and selecting
automated SMS programs. The use of various media can promote the expansion of care to the
patient’s communities and homes.


American Diabetes Association. (2002). Evidence-based nutrition principles and
recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications.
Clinical Diabetes, 20(2), 53-64.
Ellrodt, G., Cook, D. J., Lee, J., Cho, M., Hunt, D., & Weingarten, S. (1997). Evidence-based
disease management. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 278(20),
Fisher, L. & Dickinson, W. P. (2011). New Technologies to Advance Self-Management Support
in Diabetes. Diabetes Care 34(1): 240–243.