Interpersonal Attraction and Prosocial Behavior

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Question 1

_________ posits that increased prejudice and discrimination result from limited resources and consequent inter-group conflict. (4 points)

Answer Relative deprivation theory

Realistic conflict theory

Attribution theory

The self-fulfilling prophecy

Question 2

Frustration increases the probability of an aggressive response but does not inevitably lead to such a response (e.g., Berkowitz, 1993). A number of situational factors work to accentuate frustration, further increasing the odds of aggression. For example, frustration is accentuated when we: (4 points)

Answer

 perceive the frustrating act as unintentional.

perceive the frustrating act as random.

are close to our intended goal.

expect the frustration.

 Question 3

_________ is to neural cause of aggression as _________ is to chemical cause. (4 points)

Answer : The amygdala; testosterone

An evolutionary explanation; a biological explanation

Testosterone; subcortical stimulation

Arousal; frustration

Question 4

Which of the following findings provides the soundest support for the assertion that we learn aggression by observing others and imitating them? (4 points)

Answer: Aggressive children often have aggressive parents.

Children who watch an adult assault a “Bobo” doll will imitate that behavior in the laboratory.

Alleged criminals often use the “Kojak” defense.

There is a high correlation between watching TV violence and aggressive behavior, and that correlation increases with age.

Question 5

Which of the following is the best example of instrumental aggression? (4 points)

Answer: Angry at her boyfriend, Liz destroys his stereo.

Scott has a quick temper and gets into fights at parties.

Karin runs over her neighbor’s cat.

An assassin kills a leader to ensure the success of a coup.

Question 6

Research on the effects of aggressive stimuli shows that: (4 points)

Answer: the mere presence of guns is enough to trigger aggressive behavior.

the presence of guns increases the probability of aggressive behavior in the presence of a frustration or provocation.

aggressive behavior triggers an aversion to aggressive stimuli.

people only aggress in the presence of an aggressive stimulus.

Question 7

Research with elementary school girls and boys (Nichols, 1975) has revealed that girls tend to make ________, whereas boys tend to make ________. (4 points)

Answer: self-serving attributions for success; self-serving attributions for failure

external attributions for success; external attributions for failure

internal attributions for success; external attributions for failure

self-serving attributions for failure; self-serving attributions for success

Question 8

A little girl watches a television cartoon in which a woman yanks a child by the hair and screams at her. After seeing the cartoon, the little girl acts out this same interaction with her doll. This is an example of: (4 points)

Answer: the frustration-aggression link.

social learning.

catharsis.

imagined aggression.

Question 9

A number of long-term correlational studies that monitor what children actually watch on television and that use teacher and peer ratings of aggressiveness (e.g., Eron, 1982, 1987; Eron, Huesmann, Lefkowitz, & Walder, 1996) have found that: (4 points)

Answer: the relation between exposure to TV violence and aggression increases with age.

children who are aggressive to begin with prefer violent TV shows.

the relation holds for boys but not for girls.

it is reasonable to conclude that exposure to TV violence causes aggression.

Question 10

When children were randomly assigned to watch either a violent film or an exciting film about bicycle racing and then played floor hockey (Josephson, 1987), children who: (4 points)

Answer: had never been aggressive became the most aggressive after watching the violent film.

were aggressive to begin with and watched the violent film were the most aggressive.

watched the bicycle race became frustrated and actually behaved more aggressively.

watched the violent film used verbal aggression but not physical aggression.

Question 11

Are school shootings such as the Columbine Massacre simply the result of deranged individuals acting independently? What does social psychology suggest about why school shootings occur and about how the problem might be addressed? What is your personal opinion of this topic? (30 points)

Answer

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Question 12

How does group membership – even in minimal groups – contribute to prejudice and discrimination? Illustrate this with an example, either from your personal experience or observation.

Answer

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Interpersonal Attraction and Prosocial Behavior Ch. 10-11

#1: Realistic Conflict Theory

#2: Are close to our intended goal

#3: Testosterone; subcortical stimulation

#4: Children who watch an adult assault a “Bobo” doll will imitate that behavior in the laboratory

#5: An assassin kills a leader to ensure the success of a coup

#6: The presence of guns increases the probability of aggressive behavior in the presence of a frustration or provocation.

#7: self-serving attributions for failure; self-serving attributions for success

#8: social learning

#9: the relation between exposure to TV violence and aggression increases with age

#10: were aggressive to begin with and watched the violent film were the most aggressive

#11: School Shootings, which falls under the category of mass shooting, are violent acts that are motivated by envy or revenge. The profile of school shooters suggests individuals who have had a grueling past of poor parenting, juvenile abuse, self-centeredness, and a sense of sadistic streak. Such individuals often have low self-esteem, harbor paranoid delusions and their actual act is usually triggered by an aggressive impulse such as loss of a job, girlfriend etc.  Psychologists suggest that in order to address this issue amicably, children who manifest characters that are suggestive of a mass killer such as feelings of insignificance, social isolation, and feelings of paranoia should be given special attention and taken through a series of counseling sessions (Martins & Wilson, 2012).

#12: Group memberships, even those which are commonly known as minimal groups, have very strong influence on the behaviors and attitudes of members. Usually composed of people who share a sense of commonality – either negative or positive, these groups produce some of the strongest forms of discrimination and prejudice. The reason for joining such memberships is principally because of self-esteem, which is closely tied with the need to have a sense of recognition and acceptance. Ultimately, involvement in such groups forms a good prerequisite for influence, which is more often than not benign. However, due to their connection, the group can often switch their reasoning in a number of ways, including developing hatred and unified prejudice towards other groups (Martins & Wilson, 2012). An example is a college sports’ group of fans who are normally non-aggressive, but in the heat of the game can get uncharacteristically criminal and develop a strong tide of group mentality which results into an unprecedented discriminatory attitude towards members of the rival school, or even those who had once attended that school.

Reference

Martins, N., & Wilson, B. J. (2012). Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children’s Aggression in the Classroom. Human Communication Research, 38(1), 48-71.         

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