Intelligence

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Book name: Discovering psychology 6th
ISBN-13:978-4641-0241-7

Intelligence
Introduction

Intelligence is a word loosely used to refer to a person’s mental capability. In psychology
it is used to refer to a person’s mental abilities in relation to the normal expected abilities of
people with that age. Intelligence can be categorized into sub-categories such as contextual
intelligence, academic intelligence among others. The various categories all add up to a person’s
intelligence. A person’s academic intelligence is usually measured using IQ tests. IQ tests
usually measure a person’s ability in academic subjects, which can help a person determine their
area of strength and focus on developing that area (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2012). Aptitude
tests are also used to measure a person’s intelligence, these test are closely related to the IQ tests.
A person’s aptitude is a measure of his intelligence as well as natural inclinations, which make
up his characteristics.

Forms of Intelligence

Componential intelligence
Componential intelligence refers to our ability to process information (academic
intelligence). This is measured by exposing a person to particular information, then asking them
to interpret the meaning of the information. This intelligence is tested in school, when students
are asked to apply the information they have learned in school to specific hypothetical situations
to provide the best solution. An example is, when a teacher asks he history class to tell her what
lessons they have learnt from the account of world war two. In such a case, the students are

INTELLIGENCE 2
processing the information they have been given in class from the account and the effects of the
war to give an appropriate answer. The students process the information given by the teacher in
class and demonstrate their information processing abilities by giving the correct answer.
Creative intelligence
Creative intelligence refers to a person’s ability to combine different pieces of
information and knowledge to come with unique solutions to problems. It is intelligence that is
unique to every individual because no one person has the exact combination of information as
another. Aptitude tests are used to determine a person’s creative ability but they are not
exhaustive in their analysis. A student’s creativity can be best expressed through art subjects
such as painting, drawing, and music. These are the ultimate expression of creativity because the
artist draws upon all his knowledge to create a piece of art. A musician also creates music by
basing it on all his experiences and knowledge of how to create good music. Creativity in
students is measured through activities such as board games, crossword puzzles, and
mathematical puzzles. These activities require a lot of creativity from students.
Contextual intelligence
Contextual intelligence is the ability to carry out one’s daily activities in a successful
manner. These include daily conversations with people, involvement in activities with financial
value among others. This intelligence is also referred to as ‘street smarts’, which implies a
person’s ability to live his life in a way that satisfies his need for a high quality life. Contextual
intelligence is not similar to academic intelligence which is generally an ability to store
information and retrieve it while applying it to exams. Contextual intelligence refers to a
person’s ability to acquire the resources that give him a good life.
Conclusion

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In summary, there are three main types of intelligence, which are componential, creative,
and contextual, intelligences. A person requires a balanced measure of all three types of
intelligence for them to live a quality life. An intelligent person is someone who has all three
types of intelligence in a balanced measure.
Reference

Hockenbury , D., & Hockenbury, S. E. (2012) . Discovering Psychology (6th ed). London UK:
Worth Publishers.

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