Indigenous Australian cultures and the history of colonization

This is the Reflective Journal 2 : Critical Analysis for Assessment 2. This Journal
relates to Weeks 4 through to 9, exploring some of the central characteristics of
Indigenous Australian cultures and the history of colonization. You also need to
reflect upon the social, economic and psychological effects of policies past and
present and add your reflections in relation to learning about Indigenous and
Australian history. Weeks 7 and 8 particularly, focus on exploring concepts and
dimensions of Racism, Power and Privilege.
A copy of this proforma for the Reflective Journal is available through learn on-line
resources page.
There are a series of questions designed to consider and comprehend the course
content, including Lectures, Tutorials and Required Readings, and to reflect upon
feelings and understanding of the materials and concepts. Most of the questions
should only require a brief paragraph answer and some questions more specifically
request a word count however, please feel free to respond as you require. The
questions include predominantly more general statements asking for analysis and
interpretation, based on the literature and content. The sections require accurate
comprehension of course concepts, readings and tutorial activities, which is critical
for this Reflective Journal and your overall learning from the course.
We will be expecting you to demonstrate that you have read and understood the
material presented and that your writing and responses indicate reflective thinking
with regard to the course content and consideration of your learning. That is, we want
you to demonstrate that you have engaged with the material in a scholarly and critical
manner.

Preliminary Notes

This is the Reflective Journal 2 for Assessment 2. This Journal relates to Weeks 4
through to 9, exploring some of the central characteristics of Indigenous Australian cultures,
the history of colonization, the social, economic and psychological effects and your
reflections in relation to learning about Indigenous and Australian history. There is a
particular focus on exploring concepts and dimensions of Racism, Power and Privilege.

There are a series of questions designed to consider and comprehend the course content,
including Lectures, Tutorials and Required Readings, and to reflect upon feelings and
understandingof the materials and concepts. Most of the questions should only require a
brief paragraph answer and some questions more specifically request a word count
however, please feel free to respond as you require. The questions include predominantly
more general statements asking for analysis and interpretation, based on the literature
and content. The sections require accurate comprehension of course concepts, readings

and tutorial activities, which is critical for this Reflective Journal and your overall learning
from the course.

We will be expecting you to demonstrate that you have read and understood the material
presented and that your writing and responses indicate reflective thinking with regard to the
course content and consideration of your learning. That is, we want you to demonstrate that
you have engaged in the material in a scholarly and critical manner.

Referencing is an assessed componentof this Journal. Please ensure that in instances where
it is appropriate to reference, that you use the Harvard referencing style consistently
throughout the journal.

REFLECTIVE JOURNAL 2 Critical Analysis

Weeks 5 &6 – Historical Overview: Colonisation& Stolen

Week 7 –Dimensions of Racism

The Required Readings (other literature) and the Lecture and Tutorial content ask us to examine the

many dimensions of Racism and notions of White Privilege, and Power.

The Tutorials allowed us to apply the theories to practice and to make the links between the concepts

and their relevance to working in Indigenous Australian contexts.

Reflections on the Required Readings – Understanding Terms & Concepts
Consider the Required Readings for Week 7 and respond to the following questions:
Reading 8.1 Pedersen, A. et.al. Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians and Asylum Seekers:
The role of false beliefs and other social-psychological variables, Australian
Psychologist, 2005. 40 (3): pp. 170-178

Question:
1) Summarize the key messages you identified from Reading 8.1: the Pedersen, et.al.
(2005) reading:
The most important meaning of this reading is related to the manner in which the
Australians implemented restrictive approaches that would mitigate the arrivals of the
asylum seekers (Pedersen, et.al. 2005). The author delves deep into the antecedents of
prejudice against those seeking asylum in Australia and outlines some of the variables
that are important and draws the practical implications associated with the prejudices
in these interventions. In other words, the author of this material discusses some of
the practical experiences acquired in working with the asylum seekers in running anti-
prejudice projects. It is therefore vital to consider that the author’s point of view in
this material is to combat the demonization of those who seek asylum both
structurally and individually.

(This section approx 100 words)

Comprehension – Applying Terms & Concepts

Week 8 – Power & Privilege
Exploring Power and White Privilege

White Privilege has been introduced to you in order to identify and establish a
position from which dominant cultures view the Dimensions of Racism and

can contribute more specifically to Institutional Racism.
For your responses in this section, it will be helpful to make reference to the Required

Readings including:

Reading 9.1 McIntosh, P. White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack,

Independent School, 1990, 49(2): pp. 31 – 37

Reading 9.2 Radermacher, H. ‘I’m White! Oh I see! An International student perspective
on national curriculum guidelines for Indigenous issues in psychology’,
Australian Community Psychologist, 2006, 18(1): pp. 33 – 39

Reading 9.3 Tannoch-Bland, J. ‘Identifying White Race Privilege’, In ‘Bringing Australia
Together: the structure and experience of racism in Australia’, Foundation for
Aboriginal and Islander Research Action, Qld, 1998: pp. 33 – 38.
Also draw upon your reflections of Tutorial Activities

Reading 09.01 – White privilege : unpacking the invisible knapsack – McIntosh,Peggy (McIntosh, Peggy, 1990) N=9604164115&db=aph

Reading 09.02 – ‘I’m white! Oh I see!’ an international student perspective on national
curriculum guidelines for Indigenous issues in psychology – Radermacher,

Harriet (Radermacher, Harriet, 2006) 

In your own words, please write up a Definition Statement of White Privilege, as you
have come to understand it:
As determined by different views of the authors stated, the element of white
privilege is a term used to rationally defend the product of racism. Racism in this case
is presented as more of discrimination against the black people in the Australian
society and is an element that is socially contracted (McIntosh, 1990). In this case, it
can be summed up that the whites are given an upper hand in life with most of the
privileges accorded to them under their powers. Racism is therefore discussed as a

deliberate structuring of different privileges through a differential, objective and
unequal treatment of a particular segment of people in the society.
White privilege as presented by these authors infers to some of the
opportunities, benefits, and advantages, including general approaches of protection
from the negative societal approaches of mistreatment (Radermacher, 2006). The
individuals deemed as white are considered to enjoy some of the privileges within the
society while the other suffers. The benefits enjoyed by the white population are
considered to be material, social, and psychological.
These elements make the other races feel misplaced within the society. In
other words, it is essential to consider that the term white privilege is simply
beautified to show discrimination against different people of color (Tannoch-Bland,
1998). The whites are in this case accorded different benefits as compared to the other
people of color, a factor that socially costs individuals.

(This section approx 100 words)
2) Provide examples of how White Privilege is applied, and can become evident, in some
everyday contexts and environments in Australia? (approx 25 – 50 words each)
For example, in:

a) Your Workplace or in your personal relationships

The white privilegesare evident within different workplaces, as this can
be depicted in how employment and leadership roles are dispensed across the
white population and the blacks. The whites are consequently accorded senior
positions of leadership and are prone to get jobs in different organizations as
compared to the blacks (Tannoch-Bland, 1998). The blacks in this case are
awarded junior positions within the workplace and are subjected under strict
terms in order to meet their objectives. The manner in which these individuals

are also treated is another thing that is evident within the workplace
environment.

b) Policies& Practices

Some of the policies and practices that are developed within a state are
considered as discriminatory since they tend to favor a particular race in the
society. This can be viewed in the policies developed within work
environments that restrict the black community on particular practices. For
instance, the black community may be restricted on attending particular
schools that are only meant for the white population.
c) Community Attitudes

The manner in which the community views each race also depicts the
element of white privilege.The white population is consequently viewed as
superior and has the privilege to achieve whatever they would desire. On
the other hand, the white populations seethe blacks as asylum seekers and
are less effective in the community. The community in this case defines
the extent and the limits of engagement with these populations even in
relationships, a factor that denotes the element of prejudice and racism.

(This section up to 150 words)
3) Write a 500 word Reflective Statement surrounding your exploration of Power,
Privilege and related concepts.Use the following dot points to help frame your
response:
 Was White Privilege easy to define in your own context and in the context of the

profession?
If not, why?
 How did these concepts and the discussion challenge your thinking?
Examine and discuss any clarity, and/or discomfort you may have experienced
with the concepts and literatur
e

 What conclusions you have drawn at this point in your learning?

In my view, defining the element of white privilege was not difficult
to come by since it is an element that is evident in the society, a factor that
makes it easy to identify with it. Within my profession, I have been in a
position of identifying the white privileges in the manner in which roles
and responsibilities are shared. This has resulted in segregations within the
work environment, a factor that has affected the productivity of the
organization.
On the other hand, it is essential to consider the fact that these
concepts challenged my thinking in several ways. First, it becomes
challenging to acknowledge the fact that the element of racism and
discrimination still cuts across the 21 st century society. This as depicted is
driven by the proponents of globalization that has made the world into a
small community. As a result of racism, the current dispensed society has
been structured in light of privileges with the aim of achieving social
advantage over the scarcities that have been witnessed in terms of
resources, thus resulting into different ideologies that instill the element of
supremacy within the society (Radermacher, 2006).
I have clearly learnt the rational for the justifications provided over
the element of white privileges that centralizes the element of power
position simply by initiating negative views, ideologies and meanings in
the perceived differences in cultures and races(Radermacher, 2006).
However, the aspect that challenges my thought more is the fact that
prejudice and racism may not be viewed or considered as mental diseases
or psychological challenges that are exhibited by people. The element of

prejudice and discrimination is rather are cultural, rational and structural
aspects that individuals use within the society to protect and defend power.
In as much as different views my support the element of white
privileges, I believe the society is missing the wealth bestowed in cultures
and races and the ability of individuals from these races. No person needs
to suffer the consequences of discrimination because of their color or skin.
In any case, if the skin or color was the issue, then one of the best solutions
of solving the element of white privilege would be to change skin color
(Radermacher, 2006). However, I have learnt that some of the challenges
that exhibit the society may not be based or attributed to the color and
skin, but to the systems and structures that have been developed to
distribute evil within the society by justifying such evils on a segmented
group. I believe that there is no wrong in being white or black, brown, or
yellow, and we cannot assume that the skin forms the primary basis of
prejudice and discrimination, but the negative sentiments and meaning that
is ascribed to color. Color, in my view should be seen as natural, however,
the mind is what gives it meaning.
In view of this study, some of the elements that I have drawn from
this study includes the existence of prejudice and discrimination in this
current society and the manner in which these views and ideologies
infringe of the rights of innocent individuals who are named as asylum
seekers for lack of a better word (Radermacher, 2006). The society still
embraces he element of prejudice and discrimination and has only branded
it different to give it a new feel, the primary reason why it is considered as
the white privileges.

(500 word Minimum)
The National Inquiry Into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children
from their Families identified a number of psychological and inter-generational effects of
colonisationthat are experienced by Indigenous Australian people and communities today.
The experiences and evidence are best documented in the Bringing Them Home Report.
We now need to start recognizing and considering these effects and the possible role for

psychology in working with Indigenous Australians.

Comprehension of Readings and Links between Content

Consider the following Required Reading:
Reading 7.2 Human Rights & Equal Opportunity Commission (1997) Bringing Them Home Report

“Intergenerational Effects”
This reading briefly highlights four Inter-generational Effects of Colonisation as identified from
the National Inquiry Into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from
their Families.

Question:
1) From this reading (and other literature based on your own research), complete the
following table to identify the links between each of the four Inter-generational Effects,
and historical events as explored in the course:
(An example is provided below)

Inter-generational
Effect
(Identified in Reading 8.03)

Historical Event
List a corresponding historical event(s) and briefly describe
the correlation

Shorter Life Expectancy

As determined, some of the major causes of increased
shortages in life expectancy during the first half of this
current century if attributed to the failures in health that
result from parasitic and infectious diseases. It is
established that infectious and parasitic diseases
haveimmensely resulted in the deaths of most of the
Australians (Human Rights & Equal Opportunity
Commission, 1997). However, as a result of the
advances in the medical field, a reduction of these
deaths has been noted. Additionally, the improvements
in the living standards of individuals that are currently
cautious about nutritional levels, better control of
infections, water and sewer control and better sanitary

have also seen changes in this aspects.

Parenting

Parenting as established in this literature is affected
especially as a result of children being removed from
their parents as a result of separations (Human Rights &
Equal Opportunity Commission, 1997). On the other
hand, the socio-economic circumstances within many
indigenous families has seen several children loose one
or both of their parents while young, a factor that affects
the manner in which they are raised. However, several
families have incorporated the broader kingship
approach in nurturing thee children.

Behavioral Problems

Children removed from their families are considered to
adapt different deviant behaviors as a result of proper
upbringing due to the loss of their parents or separation.

Unresolved Grief and
Trauma

Unresolved grief and trauma are some of the evident
effects that inhibit this population, thus affecting their
lies and the manner in which they relate with the
community. As a result of this, individuals are prone to
developing behaviors that reflect their hunger.

Depression and Mental
Illness

Depression and mental illnesses are considered as some
of the results of deviant behavior. Individuals who
present these illnesses are bound to engage in different
activities such as abuse of drugs in order to find comfort

(This section approx 100 words)

References

Human Rights & Equal Opportunity Commission (1997): Bringing Them Home Report
“Intergenerational Effects”.
McIntosh, P. (1990): White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack, Independent
School, 49(2): pp. 31 – 37
Pedersen, A. et.al (2005): Attitudes towards Indigenous Australians and Asylum Seekers: The
role of false beliefs and other social-psychological variables, Australian Psychologist,
40 (3): pp. 170-178.

Radermacher, H. (2006) ‘I’m White! Oh I see! An International student perspective on
national curriculum guidelines for Indigenous issues in psychology’, Australian
Community Psychologist, 2006, 18(1): pp. 33 – 39
Tannoch-Bland, J. (1998):‘Identifying White Race Privilege’, In ‘Bringing Australia
Together: the structure and experience of racism in Australia’, Foundation for
Aboriginal and Islander Research Action, Old: pp. 33 – 38.

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