In health and social care

Management

Question 1

            In health and social care, recruitment and planning refers to a process that deals with identifying appropriate individual to help in the organization’s care needs. Recruitment and planning in these settings need better staffing which is achieved through filtering strategies. Planning should also include retention strategies. The first factor to consider is the overall aim of the recruitment exercises in relation to the organizational goals and objectives (Redman, 2013, p 16). On the same note, an organization should also consider availability of potential workers who meet the job requirement. The management can consider recruiting from employees who are already in the organization or from potential employees who reside in the area. If such employees with the required job requirements are not available, then management must consider the cost that they may incur in training individuals to meet the required standards or providing incentives to motivate potential employees relocate  from other areas. On the same note, an organization should consider the strategies required to attract the right potential employees to work in the organization (Espinilla et al., 2013, p 222.). For instance, the organization may consider using the internet to advertise in order to reach the potential employees.

The issue of the cost of recruitment and financial implications are important factors, training and career progression strategies need to be part of planning and recruitment process. Other factors to be considered during recruitment and planning include applicant’s practical knowledge and skills and the general behavior rating and attitude .Qualification and the experience are important factors in this sector.

There is the need to consider internal recruitment process as a motivation, and a retention strategy which is a common feature in Human resource policies in health and social care settings. Failure to identify the right candidate advertising is the best option a candidate can be identified. The organization can use several advertising approaches including the internet, jobs centers, and newspapers (Gale, et al, 2010, p 609) Recruiting agencies is one avenue of attracting suitably skilled workers.

Task 1.2

Nations across the globe have implemented their own legislative and policy requirements that are likely to influence the identification, recruitment and employment process. It is important for an organization to pursue the set legislations. For instance, in many European countries, government regulations emphasize on equal rights and opportunities for everyone despite the individual religion, gender, race and ethnic background. Some of the main legislations that guide the process of recruitment and employment include; the discrimination Act of 1975, the race relation Act of 1976, employment policy and legislation employment relation Act of 2004 and Employment Act of 2008 (Department of Work and Pensions, 2013, p. 5).

The sex discrimination act of 1975 protects individuals from being sexually harassed or wrongful dismissal due to protected characteristics. The law also protects potential candidates from discrimination of employment opportunities, rejection and refusing promotion or being given antagonistic working conditions due to protected characteristics.  In most organization discrimination takes place when procedures, policies and practices do not favor those who share specific protected characteristics (Townley, 2014, p. 92). Some of the protected characteristics recognized by law include age, disability that is unfair treatment of a disabled person, gender reassignment this is to treat people in the process to change their gender, marriage, and civil partnership which include married individuals, pregnant women, race, religion, sexual orientation and sex (Stainback and Tomaskovic-Devey, 2012, p 42).

The employment and policy legislation Act of 2004 entails conflict resolution processes in workplaces .The laws recognize the employment tribunal’s rules that include equal wages.  The sex discrimination Act of 1975 protects individuals from all types of discrimination. Individuals seeking employment face several challenges; the sex discrimination Act of 1975 covers discrimination including dismissal due to protected characteristics, decisions not to hire individual, and rejection of an individual for training and promotion based on protective characteristics. The employment Act includes conflict resolution process and implementation of minimum wages and employment standards that need to be adhered to by the employers (Department of Work and Pensions, 2013, p 19).

Task 1.3

The main selection and recruitment approach is the use of interviews. Carrying out interviews, evaluating potential candidates and using tests mostly conducted at the assessment centers can be ideal in ensuring that the best candidate is selected. Interviews can be the first process of selection, where an individual meets a selection committee comprised of different stakeholders for interviews. Interviews will reveal important traits of candidates. Interviews can provide opportunities to determine employee weaknesses and certain drawbacks. Confident candidates are considered to have strong leadership personalities (Gale, et al, 2010, p 607).

The second approach s the use of assessment center: Potential candidates can be selected and recruited through assessment centers. Assessment centers can administer tests; the results of the tests can help predict potential employee attitudes.  Several measures can be used to measure candidate’s performance. Behavior evaluation, IQ tests, psychometric assessment tests are among the commonly used methods of assessing individual capabilities (Gale, et al, 2010, p 605).

Question 2

Task 1.1    

Theories are a set of acceptable ideas or principles that are used to analyze specific situations or events. The most common theory of group work is the Tuckman’s model. According to Tuckman, team interaction can be viewed as four parts of different phases including forming storming, forming and performing (Tay, Moul and Armstrong, 2016, p 18).

According to Armstrong forming is the stage where members rely on leaders to guide the team Employees look up to the leaders to provide direction .During this stage, team members start organizing themselves and being familiar with their roles .Members try to agree on specific issues and the task to be accomplished.

            Storming is a process in which ideas are generated and deliberated upon by the groups. Teams identify various issues and try to finding solutions for the negative issues that might affect the team. This process might be disruptive and members might disagree. Disputes are likely to occur. This requires members to reflect and have the capability of being patient for the e group to stay together. Leadership guidance during this stage is equally important to provide clear direction to its members (Tay, Moul and Armstrong, 2016, p 121).

Forming is an important step because it aids group members who have overcome their grievances to agree on several issues. At this stage discussions are more open and issues are discussed honestly. Members adjust their behavior patterns and attitudes towards promoting good team work. During this stage leaders become reluctant and members are more dominant (Tay, Moul and Armstrong, 2016, p 121).

Belbin’s theory of group specifies the role of individual team members emphasizing that every member of the team possesses unique behavior that can influence performance. According to Belbin, using inventory questionnaires with nine different roles with unique characteristics can help identify the role of each member of the team. These characteristics include coordinator ,shaper ,plant ,implementer ,resource investor ,completer ,monitor ,evaluator  and team worker . Every role has its strengths and weakness, however understanding each responsibility of the team plays an important role in making an effective team. High performing teams use all these combinational roles to increase team efficiency (Townley, 2014, p 108).

Task 1.2     

Teamwork is the willingness of individuals in a team to work together to achieve a common goal. This involves developing an interest in the team and working for the good of the team. Hounslow home care can use the following approaches to developing effective teamwork. In all healthcare setting including Hounslow care homes, healthcare teams are either formal or informal teams with specific purposes.  These teams have definite leaders with individuals within the team having specific roles. Informal groups have no structure, but everyone has equal status. Within several healthcare settings comprises of multi-disciplinary teams which are informal teams (MacFarlane, et al, 2011, p 55).

MacFarlane, et al, (2011, p 59) emphasize on effective teamwork as a process of embracing diverse skills. Team members should focus on the strengths to compensate for the weak areas. Effective teamwork is about ensuring that the main objective is well stipulated and understood by every member of the team. Teamwork requires the engagement of every team member in the duties of health and social care to minimize communication barriers that might arise. Teamwork requires every member to be given equal opportunity to air out their concerns and opinions.

Teamwork has several merits. For instance, it offers better solution. A well-managed team produces more results. Teamwork creates a supportive environment and propels individuals towards working effectively. Employees’ levels of confidence increase thereby allowing them to perform to the best of their abilities. Teams also create a supportive environment that propels employees towards implementation. The environment boosts the confidence of workers motivating them into delivering their best. Moreover, teamwork have been cited to provide platforms of generating new approaches on how tasks should be accomplished. One of the disadvantages of teamwork includes unequal participation.  In some teams, members sit back and wait for others to work on their behalf an aspect that can result in conflicts at work (MacFarlane, et al, 2011, p 61). In addition, teamwork has been linked closely to limited creativity. This is because employees may become so focused on working for the general good of the team and how to fit in to the concept of the team that they contribute their ideas. Consequently, the lack of innovation may hinder an organization from moving forward. Scholars have also argued that team work at times can take longer to record the expected results. This is because they require to go through several processes such as selection, socialization, and organization in the bid of completing a task. This eventually adds on the expenses on manpower and equipments required to complete a task.

Question 3

Task 3.1   

Performance management is defined as an integrated strategic approach to delivering sustainable success to the organization by improving individual performance. Performance management is a system that helps in identifying ways to achieve the set organizational goals by constantly assessing and providing feedback that results in improved employee performance (Johansson‐Sköldberg, et al, 2013, p. 121).

The main approaches to measuring performance have identified the domains where adjustments are necessary. Performance appraisal is one of the appropriate ways of measuring individual performance. Performance appraisal involves measuring, providing feedback, positive reinforcement sharing and agreeing on set standards. Measurement is the process of determining if the set organizational goals were achieved. After obtaining individual performance progress feedback is provided involving positive feedback to reinforce good performance. Exchanging and sharing of ideas involves reviewing the past performance and sharing experiences for learning purposes. The agreement is the final process where the set goals and objectives are discussed (Gale, et al, 2010, p 606).

Task 3.2                                                    

Identifying individual training needs of an employee refers to reviewing the set goals and addressing the key activities to be conducted to achieve the set goals. Assessment of individual training and development needs entails monitoring performance and evaluating weak points. Keen observation and measuring employee performance and progress is important because the outcomes will provide the training needs and the type of training and development for individual employees. Development of needs involve conducting period training as part of the learning and development process.  Periodic training will improve individual skills and behavior attitudes to increase the level of performance (MacFarlane, et al, 2011, p 63).

Task 3.3

According to Tay, Moul and Armstrong (2016, p 115), some of the strategies that can be implemented for improvement of individual in health and social care place of work can be done by offering performance feedback and incentives. Performance feedback is offered using appraisals and targets. Employees will be motivated to achieve certain targets and goals which are geared towards achieving organization goals. If employees achieve the goals they will be rewarded by using incentive packages such as bonuses in form of increasing salary, additional training or other recognition rewards. If an employee does not achieve the goals, they should be criticized constructively to work towards achieving organization goals. This will boost individual performance because the employee will understand what is expected of him. Performance feedback whether positive or negative can solve conflicts and update employees on their weak areas hence giving the opportunity to rectify their performance behavior that might hinder employees from achieving their career objectives.

Gale, et al. (2010, p 609) states that attractive performance –based incentives motivate employees with nonfinancial incentives having lasting impact than financial incentives. Incentives might vary from increased wages to training and development program and special rewards. HR managers need to implement reward systems that will motivate employees. Rewarding is the process of recognizing employee’s performance and acknowledging their contribution .Rewards will encourage individuals to aim higher and work towards meeting the set objectives.

Question 4

Task 4.1

Leadership theories include transactional theories and transformational theories. Transactional leadership theory deals with maintaining the operation flow, using disciplinary powers and an array of incentives as ways of ensuring employees perform as expected (Redman, 2013, p 33). Transactional leadership is tailored towards ensuring that everything is running smoothly. Conversely, transformational leadership involves going beyond the day to task to come up with strategies that would make the organization performance improve and achieve the intended objectives. Some of the activities conducted by transformational leaders include promotion of team building, motivation and employee collaboration to accomplish the expected change (Redman, 2013, p 41).

On the other hand, emotional intelligence theories emphasize on the ability to comprehend and effectively manage individual emotions and of others. The objective of a leader is to accomplish the set task keeping in mind the team to ensure that everything runs as expected. The four elements of emotional intelligence include self-management, awareness and social skills (MacFarlane, et al, 2011, p 69).

Task 4.2

Transformational leadership mostly encourages teamwork and motivation of employees to work together to accomplish the set objective. As a transformational leader, it is important to set goals and incentives that push employees to perform to the best of their abilities at the same time providing opportunities for personal and professional growth. On the contrary, transactional leadership can be applied through formal authority and responsibilities. Employees will obey the directives that result in expected performance. Transactional leadership can be applied by using both incentives and punishment to enhance performance behaviors (Stainback and Tomaskovic-Devey, 2012, p 74).

Espinilla et al., (2013, p 227) highlight that emotional intelligence theory can be applied by coming up with a strategic plan. Understanding emotions in this process entails perceiving, and managing them. For instance, perception of emotions can be done through surveying to understand customers’ feelings about a specific product. Understanding emotion involves documenting the impact of various market plans by paying close attention to emotional aspects and financial implication. Managing emotion deals with understanding how to be a leader and encouraging desired emotional reaction that will generate positive outcomes.

Task 4.2

At Hounslow tasks should be allocated equally to promote good working relationships and easy management. Every staff needs to comprehend and be made aware of their job description and additional responsibilities. Some of the attributes and features that can help in improving work relationship include trust and honesty. Additionally, reliable individuals can easily provide constructive feedback and share experiences with other colleagues to impart knowledge and the relevant skills to other colleagues. Effective communication and interaction skills are necessary to manage working relationships (Stainback and Tomaskovic-Devey, 2012, p 77).

Strategies that improve team building also enhance intrapersonal work relationships. Building a conducive environment where communication is open and clear goals are stipulated will results to efficient performance. Team building makes every employee feel valuable in the organization. Organization structure refers to infrastructure and human resources and how they are utilized to achieve the specified goals.  The overall organization structure needs to be designed to motivate employees to work to the best of their abilities. Work coordination, general operation, employee function and the organization culture need to be conducive to create innovative cultures that foster the competitive advantage of an organization (MacFarlane, et al, 2011, p 76)

Task 4.3

Managing working relationship requires that leaders should trust employees to carry out their duties to high standards. According to CITATION an effective leader is required to respect their employees, be considerate, honest and value their employee’s opinions. Leaders are required to enhance the culture of openness within their teams and put a lot of effort to understand the different values, backgrounds and perspectives of each team members. Stainback and Tomaskovic-Devey (2012, p 143), explain that working as a team requires effective communication because teamwork focuses more on collaborative efforts to achieve the goals of the organization. Constructive feedback is a process where individuals facilitate a conducive environment to acquire additional skills using appropriate communication strategies. Communication skills require a good understanding of employee perspective on certain issues hence developing a good teamwork.

My own development is primarily influenced by management and leadership approach. As such, I will utilize performance appraisal to help me identify my areas of weaknesses and strengths. I will focus on improving on my weakness by undergoing training or improving myself using self-directed reading to improve my management knowledge. I will also acknowledge other managers approaches and try to learn from successful managers and leaders. However, I consider the use of team target setting and task allocation to be the most effective management approach. The reason is because I have learned that task allocation not only benefit an individual but a team as a whole.

Bibliography

Department of Work and Pensions. (2013). Making the labour market more flexible, efficient and fair.

Espinilla, M., de Andrés, R., Martínez, F.J. and Martínez, L., 2013. A 360-degree performance appraisal model dealing with heterogeneous information and dependent criteria. Information Sciences, 222, pp.459-471.

Gale, T. C. E., Roberts, M. J., Sice, P. J., Langton, J. A., Patterson, F. C., Carr, A. S., & Davies, P. R. F. (2010). Predictive validity of a selection centre testing non-technical skills for recruitment to training in anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 105(5), 603-609.

Johansson‐Sköldberg, U., Woodilla, J. and Çetinkaya, M., 2013. Design thinking: past, present and possible futures. Creativity and Innovation Management, 22(2), pp.121-146.

MacFarlane, F., Greenhalgh, T., Humphrey, C., Hughes, J., Butler, C., & Pawson, R. (2011). A new workforce in the making? A case study of strategic human resource management in a whole-system change effort in healthcare. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 25(1), 55-72.

Redman, T. (2013) .Performance appraisal, in Wilkinson, A. and Redman, T. (eds) Contemporary Human Resource Management. London: FT Prentice Hall.

Stainback, K. and Tomaskovic-Devey, D., 2012. Documenting desegregation. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

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