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Implementation and Evaluation

Implementation and Evaluation


The Epidemiology Paper is a practice immersion assignment designed to be completed in three sections. This is part three of the assignment. Learners are required to identify theories for implementation and evaluation of prevention and health promotion activities for an at risk population.

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This assignment comprises the third and final part of the Epidemiology Paper. Write a 1000 This is a continuation of #115398

Identify a public health theory you will use to support the implementation of your prevention and health promotion activities. Provide evidence that supports the use of this theory within the program you designed.

1. Design evidenced-based prevention and health promotion activities that can be implemented to decrease the health risk among your previously identified population.

2. Identify the evaluation program you will use to determine the efficacy of your health promotion activities and in meeting the expected outcomes.

3. A good conclusion that sums up #115398 and this present order as the two papers will have to be combine.

Implementation and Evaluation

There are several theories used to guide the implementation and evaluation of public health programs (Turner, 2017).  The population at risk identified for the epidemiology paper is the homeless population in the United States of America. According to the United States Department of Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH, 2017), a population that is regarded as homeless in the USA is faced by numerous healthcare challenges such as limited access to health care services, low social, economic status, drug abuse, chronic conditions, and mental health conditions. The implementation of health promotion and preventive measures against common conditions facing the homeless is a collaborative effort (Turner, 2017). The health promotion and disease prevention theory chosen for this paper is the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT).  According to Bandura, (2014), Social Cognitive Theory relies on the ability of an individual to control their behavior. Behavior, in turn, affects health care outcomes. According to the SCT, the environment affects the health of individuals. This paper discusses the theories applied in the implementation and evaluation of health promotion and preventive measures against common conditions facing the homeless in the USA.

Implementation of Prevention and Health Promotion Activities

According to the US Department of Health and Human Services the population that is termed as homeless in the USA is faced with the problem of infectious diseases, such pneumonia, drug, and substance abuse disorders and other mental health conditions, chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes and sexually transmitted disease like HIV/AIDS. The US Departments of Interagency Council on Homelessness and Health and Human Services (HHS) have collaboratively initiated several health promotions and disease preventive measures for the homeless (HHS, 2018).

According to the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (2017), one of the health promotion and preventive measures is to integrate the healthcare and housing services for the homeless. Through housing, the population’s safety and wellness are achieved. According to the Social Cognitive Theory, the environment forms a critical part of wellness, safety, and health (Rae & Rees, 2015).  Therefore, the knowledge about the impact of the environment on the health of individuals will be used to provide housing services to homeless individuals in the USA. According to Webb, Mitchell, T& Snelling, (2018), lack of housing, permanent and safe shelter expose the homeless individuals to infectious conditions such as pneumonia.  Lack of safe housing and permanent shelter exposes the homeless population to adverse weather conditions. Therefore, provision of shelter and housing services to the homeless is a preventive measure against healthcare conditions caused by homelessness (Webb et al., 2018).

Besides, according to the US Department of Interagency Council on Homelessness, (2017), awareness creation about the healthcare conditions is preventive and promotes health. The creation of awareness among the homeless about the healthcare condition they are facing is an effective intervention.  According to the social cognitive theory, every individual has control over their behavior (Turner, 2017). Further, behaviors affect the levels of safety and wellness of every individual. Specifically, poor healthcare seeking behavior exposes homeless individuals to healthcare hazards and diseases.

Similarly, the homeless should be educated on the effects of drug and substance abuse on their health. The individuals regarded as homeless in the USA use drugs and substances in order to relieve themselves of the stressful experiences (Lippert & Lee, 2015). Maladaptive drug use and dependence lead to conditions such as psychotic symptoms. However, according to the social cognitive theory, building up the capability of the individuals controls their health behavior (Turner, 2017).  Therefore, education to the population classified as homeless builds their capacity to control the behaviors which affect their safety and wellbeing. Additionally, educating the individuals who are termed as homeless in the USA on safe sexual behaviors will reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted conditions, such as HIV (Rae & Rees, 2015).

Evaluation of the Program

The two main interventions proposed and discussed above are; integration of the healthcare services with housing services among the homeless and awareness creation. The evaluation of the impact and effectiveness of the interventional measures will be carried out based on the social cognitive theory.  According to Denler, Wolters, & Benzon, (2014), the social cognitive theory is composed of recognition of the ability to control behavior, the expectations of outcomes of behavioral change and assigning a value to outcomes of behavioral change. Therefore, the evaluation of the change in the provision of healthcare services integrated with housing services and the awareness creation will be evaluated based on the change in the level of wellness and safety among the individuals classified as homeless.

Individually, the population that is classified as homeless will be evaluated for the level of safety and wellness after integration of healthcare with housing services. Individuals who will have been provided with housing services will be assessed for the prevalence of common health conditions. The affected individuals will be assessed for the presence of infectious diseases, sexually transmitted infections and psychotic symptoms.

 According to Pearcy, & Keppel, (2016), one of the critical elements of public health is the ability of individuals to contribute to their health. Public health aims at empowering populations to take charge of their healthcare status. Similarly, nursing practice aims at providing client-centered healthcare that improves independence. Most of the nursing theories describe nursing as a practice that enhances the ability of individuals to interact with the environment on their own (Pearcy, & Keppel, 2016).

Therefore, evaluation of the health promotion and disease prevention of proposed programs will be evaluated based on the ability of the homeless to control their health. The homeless will be evaluated for their health seeking behavior. The population will also be evaluated based on their adherence to safe sexual behavior that prevents transmission n of sexuality transmitted infections.  After the implementation of health promotion and disease prevention programs among the homeless, the population will be evaluated for adherence to the program implemented.


According to the analysis section of the project, the homeless population makes up a significant portion of the total USA population. According to the Department of Health and Human Services, there are health care issues that are unique to the homeless. The healthcare conditions that commonly face the individual termed as homeless include; chronic diseases, drug, and substance addiction and abuse, psychiatric conditions, infectious diseases, and sexually transmitted diseases.

This paper subsequently proposes the integration of healthcare with housing services and awareness creation such as disease prevention and health promotion among the homeless. The social cognitive theory has been selected to guide the implementation and evaluation of two interventional programs. The ability of oneself to control their behavior and hence health care are two aspects of the social cognitive theory. The element of expected outcomes after an intervention forms the basis for the evaluation of the impact of the stated interventions.


Bandura, A. (2014). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In Handbook of moral behavior and development (pp. 69-128). Psychology Press.

Denler, H., Wolters, C., & Benzon, M. (2014). Social cognitive theory. Retrieved from.

Lippert, A. M., & Lee, B. A. (2015). Stress, coping, and mental health differences among homeless people. Sociological Inquiry, 85(3), 343-374.

Pearcy, J. N., & Keppel, K. G. (2016). A summary measure of health disparity. Public health reports.

Rae, B. E., & Rees, S. (2015). The perceptions of homeless people regarding their healthcare needs and experiences of receiving health care. Journal of advanced nursing, 71(9), 2096-2107.

Turner, F. J. (2017). Social work treatment: Interlocking theoretical approaches. Oxford University Press.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (2018, 0ctober 01). Retrieved October 09, 2018, from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS):

U. S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH). (2018, July 02) Retrieved October 09, 2018, from U. S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH):

Webb, W. A., Mitchell, T,& Snelling, P. (2018). Nursing management of people experiencing homelessness at the end of life. Nursing Standard (2014+), 32(27), 53.

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