History of Public Health in U.S.A

lic health has a long history and has achieved many significant accomplishments since the
18th and 19th centuries. It is important to understand the history of the discipline in
order to understand the philosophy, values, current structure, function, and
priorities of public health. In an essay of 750 to 1,000 words, address the following
1.How did public health begin in the United States? Describe the origins and explain the
history of public health.
2.What are the core values and philosophy of public health?
3.Discuss the mission and scope of public health.
4.Compare and contrast to the discipline of public health to that of medicine.
5.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified the 10 greatest
achievements in public health. Identify and describe one key milestone in public
health and how that achievement relates to the health impact pyramid.
6.Describe the value and significance of the selected achievement in public health today.

115500 PUB

History of Public Health in U.S.A
Before the eighteenth century, public health issues were associated with supernatural
causes and were dealt with through divine interventions. However, during the eighteenth
century, knowledge on the causes of communicable diseases contributed to a scientific way of
managing public health conditions. During the 18th century, authorities were establishing
quarantines for the individuals who were diagnosed with communicable conditions. For instance,
Philadelphia formed laws of isolation of people suffering from smallpox (Baum, 2016). During
the same period, voluntary hospitals were created for the sick. In the year 1773, the first
voluntary hospital for the patients who presented with communicable diseases was established in
New York.
During the 19th century, filth was known to be the major cause of diseases. Diseases
were regarded to reflect the environmental and social characterization. Healthcare systems

115500 PUB
shifted to focus on isolation to prevention as the main approach towards managing public health.
The achievement of proper public health systems was seen as a collective social responsibility.
Investigation of public health cases characterized the period after the 19th century. The century
was also characterized by scientific advancements that focused research and development of
vaccines and disease surveillance. The development of structured government systems also
promoted the management of public health systems (Lewis, 2015). The authorities ensured that
water was provided to the towns and cities in order to achieve sanitation as a way of preventing
disease outbreaks.
In the following years, federal, state and local agencies of managing public health were
formed. For example, the United States Public Health Service was created. Advancement in the
study of microorganisms led to the discovery of the causative agents of several diseases. For
example, the development of microscopy led to the study of bacteria. States and the federal
governments established laboratories to study the causes of public health conditions. The
management of public health was included in several legal acts by the Congress, including the
inclusion of a clause on reimbursement of public health services by the Medicare in 1966 (Baum,
Mission and Scope of Public Health
The mission of public health is to protect communities from health and safety threats.
Public health prevents against disease occurrence and empowers communities to do so in several
ways such as information sharing and education (Brownson, Baker, Deshpande, & Gillespie,
2017). The scope of public health involves the community in aggregate. Public health includes
biological, physical and material well being of groups of people.
Public Health and Medicine

115500 PUB
Both public health and medicine are the concerned amount the biological, physical and
mental health of the individual; as. The two disciplines of health are derived from the description
of health that insists health be holistic. Public health is concerned about the health of a
community whereas medicine is concerned about the health of individual patients. Public health
aims at preventing the occurrence of disease whereas medicine provides treatment services to
patients. Public health implements interventions that prevent the outbreak of conditions while
medicine offers curative serve, in cases where the condition has already occurred (Brownson et
al., 2017).

Core Values and Philosophy of Public Health
One of the values on public health is a community. Public health is a discipline that is
composed of several professionals — the professional’s area connected by the one common goals
of advantage for the interests of the help to the public. The public health community helps
achieve common n ideas in public health. Further, professionals who have common interests in
public health consult with one another in decision-making. The practice of evidence-based public
healthcare services is another essential core value. The practice of public health is guided by
effective guidelines that have been proved through research. Equity is another public health
value (Brownson et al., 2017). Public health aims at offering opportunities to all members to
reduce disparities in the level of health care achieved by each. Prevention of disease and injury is
a core value in public health. Public health aims at creating an environment that promotes
Public Health Achievements and the Health Impact Pyramid

115500 PUB
Prevention of motorcycle accidents is one of the achievements in public health, as listed
by the Center for Disease and Prevention (CDC). Prevention of motorcycle accidents has been
achieved through laws that dictate in the wearing helmets. In most of the states in the USA, data
indicates that the laws have been effective in preventing motorcycles accidents. However, there
have been cases contributing to a significant portion of road traffic accidents involving
motorcycles. Prevention of motorcycles accidents lies in the long-lasting protective measures
section of health impact pyramid. This level of the pyramid describes the services that affect both
the individual and community’s health (Frieden, 2015). Protection of motorcycle accidents
affects the health of the individual rider and that of the passenger.

Value and Significance of the Selected Achievement
The achievement of protection of motorcycle related injuries have contributed towards
safeguarding the health of the U.S.A citizens. The policy has contributed to saving up to $ 2.8
billion annually.
In summary, the history of the public health in the U.S.A exceeds 150 years. The practice
of public health has advanced through centuries, driven by the need for better health and growth
of knowledge of public health. The core values of the public are; community, evidence-based
practice, equity and disease prevention. Public health is similar and differs to medicine in several
aspects. Prevention of motorcycle injuries is one of the achievements by the CDC (Frieden,

115500 PUB


Baum, F. (2016). The new public health (No. Ed. 4). Oxford University Press.
Brownson, R. C., Baker, E. A., Deshpande, A. D., & Gillespie, K. N. (2017). Evidence-based
public health. Oxford university press.
Frieden, T. R. (2015). The future of public health. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(18),
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches.
Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475.