We have explored various body systems: neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, and hematological. These four
systems work together along with other body systems to complete a myriad of functions. For this reason, when
disorders occur within one body system, it can create potentially devastating effects throughout the entire body. For
instance, Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system, yet its alterations actually affect multiple
body systems from the cardiovascular system to the gastrointestinal system. In this Assignment, you examine
alterations associated with disorders, as well as the impact of the alterations on multiple body systems.
� From the list below, select a disorder of interest to you:
o Alzheimer’s disease
o Asthma in children
o Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
o Congestive heart failure
o Hepatic disease (liver disease)
o Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
� Identify alterations associated with your selected disorder. Consider the pathophysiology of the alterations. Think
about how these alterations produce pathophysiological changes in at least two body systems.
� Reflect on how patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the
pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
Develop a 5- to 10-slide PowerPoint presentation that addresses the following:
� Describe your selected disorder, as well as associated alterations. Explain the pathophysiology of the alterations,
including changes that occur in at least two body systems.
� Explain how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you
identified, as well as diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
� Construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology of alterations, risk
factors, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.
Common symptoms of liver disease
There are a number of liver disease symptoms which
are used as pointers of its occurrence and they include
Nausea, right upper quadrat abdominal pain,
Jaundice (a yellow discoloration of the skin due to
elevated bilirubin concentrations in the blood stream
Fatigue (the body becomes weak and weight loss is
The symptoms are general for different liver ailments
until late stage also called liver disease (Kumar &
Facts about liver disease
The liver plays important functions in the
It is the largest organ in the body that acts as
The liver also helps in the production of
protein and blood clotting to cholesterols iron,
glucose and iron metabolism
The liver is affected by many diseases
Treatment for liver disease is dependent on its
Functions of liver
Production of blood clotting factors
Production of amino acids those that make proteins and
Produce bile required in digestion of food more so fats
Storage of extra glucose in the body stored as glycogen
in liver cells and conversion it back to energy when body
requires it (Celik et al. 2005).
Processing and storage iron necessary for red blood cells
Metabolism of medication into their active ingredients
It converts glycogen into glucose
One of it central fatigue which arises from
changes in neuro-transmitter systems
within the brain
Causes hepatitis C that causes cognitive
impairments and altered cerebral
Change that occurs in the body system
Peripheral fatigue causes dysfunction in the
neuro-muscules due to muscle overutilization
and associated metabolic changes. It causes
weakness of the whole body (Adams, Victo &
Central fatigue affects the central nervous
system or rather the brain. It hinders an
individual from performing physical and
mental activities due to a severe lack
ofresponses and self-motivation to internal
The pathogenesis of fatigue is poorly understood but the altered neurotransmission
within The CNS causes central fatigue. Conequently, understanding of fatigue in
liver disease incorporate two major concepts (Weissenborn et al. 2004).
How a damaged liver communicate with brain to causes changes in
neurotransmission and more specifically changes in neurotransmission that occur
within the brain as a result of the communication and how the changes cause
Central fatigue results from alterations in neurotransmitters pathways in the brains.
The pathways that cause central fatigue are those that are important in arousal,
behavioral and locomotors activity.
Important brain areas include, basal ganglia, reticular, brainstem, limbic systems
and higher cortical centers
Neurotransmitters that cause central fatigue include serotonin,
corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), noradrenaline and other systems.
Demographic factors that may impact on the pathophysiology of
People that have the liver disease regardless of the age usually
Ethnicity does not play a crucial role because central fatigue
causes body weakness and affects the functioning of the brain
Diagnosis and treatment of the disorder
Liver disease (hepatic disease) treatments depend on the specific kind of the
Common treatment options include supportive care, surgery for those with
gall stones, others requires long term medical care to control, and minimize
consequence of the diseases.
Other alternatives include the control of the amount of proteins absorbed in
diet. Intake of low sodium diet and water pills (Czaja& Freese, 2002).
Intake of alcohol (Milkiewicz & Heathcote, 2004).
Others are viral infections such as Hepatitis A and C- infected through,
unprotected sex, exchange of body fluids and use of non sterilized equipment.
Tylenol overdose cause liver failure, medication may cause narrowness of blood
vessels leading to blood clots.
Hereditary liver diseases are passed through genetically from generation to
The disease affects all the members of the
society form the children to adult
Cases are less among the Africans and
It affects people across the world
Pathophysiology of alteration
Alterations in neurotransmitters
pathways in the brain causes central
Pathways that cause central fatigue are
those that are important in arousal,
behavioral and locomotors activity
Diagnosis and treatment of the disorder
Common treatment options include supportive
care, surgery for those with gall stones, others
requires long term medical care to control, and
minimize consequence of the disease
Adams, R., Victo, M., & Ropper, A. (1997). Fatigue, asthenia, anxiety and
depressive reactions. In: Adams RD, Victor M, Ropper AH, editors. Principles of
Neurology. 6. New York: McGraw-Hill, 497–507.
Celik, C et al. (2005). Fatigue of cholestasis and the serotonergic
neurotransmitter system in the rat. Hepatology, 41:731–7.
Czaja, A., & Freese, D. (2002). Diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune
hepatitis, Hepatology, 36:479–97
Kumar, D., & Tandon, R. (2002). Fatigue in cholestatic liver disease – a
perplexing symptom. Postgrad Med J, 78:404–7.
Milkiewicz, P., & Heathcote, E. (2004). Fatigue in chronic cholestasis. Gut,
Swain, M. (2000). Fatigue in chronic disease. Clin Sci (Lond), 99:1–8.
Wessely, S., & Pariante, C. (2002). Fatigue, depression and chronic hepatitis C
infection. Psychol Med.32:1–10.
Weissenborn, K., M, et al. (2004). Hepatitis C virus infection affects the
brain-evidence from psychometric studies and magnetic resonance
spectroscopy. J Hepatol. 41:845–51