From the GCU Library, select and review three recent (published within the last five years)
journal articles (one of each of the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of health
promotion) in nursing practice.
Prepare an essay (750-1,000) words in which you review and compare the three articles you
have selected for this assignment. Address the following:
1) How is health promotion defined?
2) What is the purpose of health promotion in nursing practice?
3) How are nursing roles and responsibilities evolving in health promotion?
4) Explain the implementation methods for health promotion that encompasses all areas of
5) Compare the three levels of health promotion prevention.
This paper is a review of three publications in relation to the levels of health promotion.
The paper also evaluates ways through which nurses implement various aspects of health
promotion to individual consumers. In addition, it compares the primary, secondary and tertiary
level of health promotion.
According to Sanderson et al, (2009), health education refers to the combination of
environmental and educational support for conditions and actions of living that are conducive to
a person’s health. Whereas health education is concerned with the voluntary activities of
individuals with regard to the values, attitudes and making decisions, health promotion is
concerned with enhancing health factors at a society level. The main goal of health promotions is
to empower individuals to make informed decisions concerning their behaviors and actions in
relation to their health. As such, these individuals would need political, environmental and social
support. For success to be realized in this endeavor, health education components also need to be
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included in health promotion endeavors. Health promotion is concerned with people’s lifestyle,
and chronic disease issues such as alcoholism, smoking, medical facilities in primary care and
sexual activities. In essence, health promotion is mandated to change an individual’s attitudes
and direct them to live in a healthy lifestyle. This will in turn assist these people to attain the
desired goals on their health and wellbeing.
According to Rae et al, (2011), many conditions and diseases are brought about by
individual lifestyle issues including: alcohol drinking, poor nutritious meals, smoking and so on.
Many such conditions could be prevented if effective measures are considered. Through the
efforts on health promotion, individuals are consistently learning to make informed decisions
concerning their actions, behaviors as well as practices related to disease control and prevention.
Disease prevention practiced can be categorized at three different levels, these are primary,
secondary, and tertiary level. Primary level refers to a deterrence of disease conditions by
minimizing exposition to risk factors that result to such diseases. The measures in primary care
may include regular physical activities, health nutrition, and cessation of drinking and or
drinking and safe sexual activities (Sanderson et al, 2011). Secondary prevention on the other
hand, includes the early detection and punctual disease treatment. Detection tools including
cervical cancer screening and mammography can be considered secondary prevention measures.
This is because they are used to detect diseases before they spread to other parts of the body.
These therefore, prevent the diseases from progressing or being complicated. Other examples in
secondary prevention may include change of behaviors and use of medications in curbing
chronic aliments that may not be easily prevented. These may include asthma, and diabetes.
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Tertiary prevention occurs in a case when a disease has advanced to a serious level. It includes:
alleviation of pain, controlling the disease progression, and reducing the implication caused by
the disease. In addition, tertiary prevention involves rehabilitation circumstances where a person
endeavors to restore specific functions. For instance, one may decide to restore specific functions
that were lost in the body due to occurrence of a particular disease.
While it is the responsibility of health care customers to undertake primary prevention to
maintaining their health, secondary prevention needs both the consumer compliance as well as
the guidance of a healthcare provider. Tertiary prevention on the other hand, is the objective of
caregivers and healthcare providers.
An individual’s state of mind, actions and behavior has been found to influence disease
prevention efforts and related deaths (O ‘Donnell, (2009)). This means that an individual is
mandated to make changes with respect to his or her lifestyle for an effective health promotion.
On their part, nurses play a crucial role in the promotion of health by undertaking measures that
direct the health of consumers in establishing, and maintaining resources to enhance their well-
In accordance to O ‘Donnell, (2009), health promotion enhances health determinants
control over health consumers to making informed decisions concerning their health. Many
organizations, health practitioners, and individuals have consistently utilized health promotion as
a means of resolving health issues and challenges that are prevalent in the society today.
Moreover, health promotion is concerned over communicable, non-communicable diseases as
well as other factors that are related to the development of human health. Knowledge in health
promotion is expected to equip the society with the insights that are necessary in carrying out
actions relating to health issues that they encounter. However, health promotion requires people
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to be involved for the purpose of maintaining and improving their health. The process in health
promotion will be effective through the abilities and skills of an individual. This will therefore,
be strengthened if these individuals are coerced and mobilized in controlling their actions and
lifestyle with regard to the health variables in their environment. In addition, it is important for
positive aspects concerning health aspects to be instilled on these individuals so that they can be
their own stewards in promoting their own individual health.
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Rae W, and Hassall J (2011). “Health promotion interventions to address climate change using
primary and secondary health care approach: A literature review”. Health Promotion
Journal of Australia: Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion
Professionals, Vol. 22, Special Issue, Dec 2011: S6-S12.
O ‘Donnell, P.M (2009).”Health Promotion” American Journal of Health Promotion:
2009, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. iv-iv.
Martin A, Sanderson K, Cocker F (2009). “Meta analysis of the effects of health promotion
interventions in the workplace” Scand J Work Environ Health 35 (1): 7–18.