Health and Social Care Management

Health and Social Care Management

            Every individual has the right to live safely and free from abuse and neglect. However, it is not always that every person lives this kind of life. People often fall into situations where they are vulnerable to abuse and neglect. It is important to note that abuse and neglect happens because people use power and intimidation to control another person’s life. Most of the cases of abuse and neglect are perpetrated by the people known to the victims. However, strangers can also cause abuse to the people they do not know. The abuse that comes from the people known to the victims happens because the victim trusts their assailant. A feeling of trust and belief in the assailant makes it easy for victims to fall into abuse and trust quite easily.

Task 1.1

            Kleinman (2015) defines abuse as a repetitive pattern of behavior conducted by an individual to maintain control and power over another person. The behavior arouses fear, harms physically, or prevents the other person from engaging in what they like or force them to do what they do not want. Conversely, harm refers to mental or physical damage or injury that may be afflicted on a person due to aggressive reckless behavior.

There are many forms of abuse. They include sexual abuses which are acts that victims do not consent to, but are forced to participate in them. Physical abuses are in the form of assaults, slapping or hitting, just to mention a few forms. There is psychological abuse, which is in form of emotional abuse and verbal abuse, controlling the victim and threatening the person. Emotional abuse is also referred to as psychological abuse. It refers to acts such as isolation, verbal assault, confinement, humiliation, or any treatment that may diminish the sense of self-worth, identity, and dignity. It also exposes the victim to psychological trauma such as chronic depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Domestic abuse comes from a family member or relative. A victim can be abused through discrimination. This kind of abuse causes unfair treatment of people from a different race, gender, religion, tribe, age or sexual orientation. People can also be abused financially, where one is forced to use or spend their money in ways that they do not feel are appropriate. Neglect is another form of abuse. This form of abuse means that the victim is left to suffer without proper care. In other words, when one fails to receive what they really need from their primary care giver, they are said to be neglected (NHS, 2015).

In the case provided, John could be suffering from neglect. This is because his parents are continually unavailable for him. For instance, John’s mother is notified about the current behavior of her son and the bruises he has but she ignores all these and chooses not to spare some time for her son to know what is happening. Lack of parental care has very significant effects on the well-being of a child. John could also be suffering from physical abuse. This is because Tina, John’s nurse, reports that John has bruises on his arm. It is possible that his stressed up mom could be beating him up thoroughly.

            The victims of abuse show certain signs that prove they are in an abusive relationship. One appears withdrawn, quiet, malnourished, and have low self-esteem. It is important to note that even for the people World Health Organization are quiet, there is a form of withdrawal that is beyond the normal. The victims could become angry and aggressive, even in situations that do not require such emotions.  In the case of John, mentioned in this case study, a victim can become unkempt and dirty. In some extreme cases, victims have bruises, wounds and scars, to serve as proof that they are in an abusive relationship (Centers of Disease Control, 2015). People like John have no power to stand up for themselves and fight back. This makes them vulnerable to harm inflicted by others. Moreover, John serves as a good example of children with learning disabilities World Health Organization tend to be silent, express their emotions, have difficulties in concentrating and understanding basic concepts, and also have a feeling of isolation.

Some of the groups that are generally exposed to abuse in the society include children, individuals with mental health, persons with disability as well as the elderly. Usually, individuals with mental disability are exposed to neglect and discrimination due to their inability to make rational decisions. In addition, children with learning disability may be accorded little care by their instructors World Health Organization may view them as a nuisance.

Task 1.2

            There are several factors that can predispose individuals into becoming victims of abuse and/or harm. Some of the risk factors that may expose children to abuse and/or harm include a parent World Health Organization has a history of being neglected or abused, family crisis such as marital conflicts or domestic violence, alcoholism and substance abuse, physical disability of a child, care givers World Health Organization suffer from physical or mental illness as well as poor understanding of the development of a child and parenting skills.

Disability can cause a child to suffer issues of neglect and abuse. This is because they have no power or capacity to do much for them. Abused victims lack the capacity to understand their situation. For instance, a child has no capacity to comprehend what goes on in their home. This can cause the parents to be abusive to the child, knowing that the child lacks power to do anything about it. In addition, a woman lacks the physical strength to fight a man, which means that she could become a victim of abuse (Kleinman 2015). Some of the settings that have been documented to have child abuse include learning institutions, the community, children homes, and families especially those with marital issues.

Task 1.3

            Child abuse and violence is dated back to the times before civilization ever took place. The culture and socially acceptable norms guide parents and guardians on the best way to bring up their children (Sperry and Widom 2013). One culture could advocate for disciplining the child by speaking and withdrawing privileges. Another culture believes that children need to be beaten, in order to instill discipline. Different cultures have different acceptable forms of parenting. The culture of a people serves as a source of beliefs and behavior and the concepts of how people should conduct themselves. However, cultural and social factors may predispose children to abuse and harm. For instance, female children may be subjected to female genital mutilation, an inhumane act that is extremely pain and is associated with short and long term health risks on the girls. Parents some communities offer their girl children to elderly men for marriage in exchange of dowry. This denies the ladies the right to education and subjects them to intense psychological trauma as they try to cope with marriage life. Religion is another cultural factor that may expose a child to abuse. For instance, stories have been told of parents World Health Organization chooses not to take their children to the hospital to seek medical services because their religion states that God will heal the sick. The child ends up suffering from immense pain or his/her quality of life deteriorates considerably. Conversely, social factors such as racism and tribalism may predispose a child to abuse and/or harm. For example, incidents of have recorded whereby people are denied essential services such as quality health care and education on the basis of racial or tribal discrimination.

            The diminishing status of the child in the parent-child relationship (World Health Organization, 2014) has affected the trust that should exist between children and their parents. Stalker and McArthur (2012) explain that poverty can lead to abuse and neglect. Another social factor that can lead to abuse and neglect is social exclusion (Pillemer, Burnes, Riffin and Lachs 2016). Most people tend to argue that personal issues are not communal, which means that the victim suffers alone. Often, the society has the capacity to help the person, but people keep away from such matters for the fear of becoming victims.


            In response to the concern presented to the manager by Tina, the manager can take the responsibility by calling the parents to a meeting. One of the ideas to have in mind is that the manager has a role to play in the life of every child that comes into their facility. The manager can act as the guardian of the child by asking the parents to speak with a counselor about their issues. This will help them to work on their frustrations, which they do not have to pass out on a three year old child. Secondly, the counselor can also call child social workers in case she sees that her approach is not yielding any result. A child social worker as well as a children advocate can help the manager to address the issue by having the child placed in foster care.


            Change means transforming practices that tend to be harmful to a vulnerable person. It is very important for organizations to change their practices. Many organizations can change certain unacceptable regulations and shape norms and new systems that promote health and safety. Another strategy that the nursery can use is to work with policy makers to give their suggestions and views about the issues that children go through in abusive situations. Policy makers can discuss and approve health and safety policies that protect the vulnerable groups from abuse and neglect (Promising Practice Network 2014).

Task 2.1

            One of the advantages of the legislations is that they have empowered parents such that they are welcomed to take part in the decision-making process regarding their child. Powell and Uppal (2012) point out that in order for a family’s continue functioning as the primary custodians of the children in a constructive and safe way, the power of the family respected and accorded support. Therefore, the legislations allow parents to be brought to the negotiation table with appropriate parties. Additionally, the legislation recommend that the conversation between the parties involved should be realistic and confidential. This aids in fostering comfortable, honest, informative, and productive discussions regarding the dynamics of the family as well as how the family can in observing child welfare system. The legislations give children a chance to have a voice at the table.

One of the most notable weakness of the legislation is the imbalance that is develops between the parents and the State. The state overwhelmingly and abruptly asserts its power on parents by removing a child from his/her parents, present a child to the welfare system, and giving parents an order to comply for them to receive their child. Moreover, it has been noted that most of these legislations are enacted by individuals that have a history of domestic violence and this prevents them from making un-coerced and voluntary decisions. They are therefore seen to be biased in their decisions.

Task 2.2

            There are professionals in the World Health Organization who deal with issues of abuse. However, many people tend to shy away from reporting child abuse cases. The fear that many people feel is that they will be breaking up a home. Others fear that the violent persons might start attacking them if they learn of the role they played in breaking a cycle of abuse. Another fear is that the report will not make a difference in the life of a child. However, it is better to be safe when it comes to the issue of a child. It is unfortunate that most people would rather be quiet about an abusive home than be involved (Committee on Child Maltreatment Research 2014).

Professionals such as teachers play a central role in minimizing child abuse. For instance, they report to relevant authorities the instances where they suspect a child could be undergoing abuse. They also offer advice to parents about their children’s behavior and how it could be related to child abuse. The administrators such as the police, attorney general and the lawyers also aid in enforcing the law and ensuring that the perpetrators are dealt with according to the law. Journalist also aid in reporting cases of child abuse and enlightening the public on the causes of child abuse and what can be done to curb cases of abue in the society.

            In the case provided, as the nursery manager I will start by engaging other staff members such as the Safeguarding Officer (Kate) and the Special Educational Needs Coordinator (Richard) so that I may get their suggestions on what should be done. It will also be imperative to request John’s mother to come to the school so that we may discuss and find what is wrong with the kid. I will strive at ensuring that John’s mother understands the gravity of the meeting by using examples of kids that in our facilities World Health Organization had similar behavior as that of John but changed completely after we intervened. During the meeting, we will make it clear to the mother that parents play a central role in molding the future of their kids. Therefore, it is essential for them to take action whenever they note some abnormal behavior in their kids. She should understand that it is not rational to label a kid as clumsy without finding reasons behind it.


            It is important to understand the consequences of child abuse and neglect. A child World Health Organization grows in such an environment is prone to physical and mental growth. In addition, a child can become hopeless about having a good life. A child living in an abusive home can have a very low self-esteem. The cognitive development of a child in an abusive home can be delayed. When these children are compared to their peers, these children often grow slower (Powell and Uppal, 2012). In addition, their academic performance is poor.

            The government can work with social workers and institutions of learning to reach out to the children World Health Organization are in abusive homes. The fact is that every child has a right to having a good life. A good life, in this case, does not mean that the child has material property provided to them. The basic needs that are very important to a child are food, shelter, clothing and love. Children need a lot of love for them to cultivate a positive attitude towards life. The government should ensure that every child receives these things.

            When one considers the reaction of the mother, it is clear that she avoids talking about the issues she faces. One of the strategies that can help the manager to deal with the issue of abuse is to separate the mother from the source of the harm. It looks like the mother is in a place where the issues she faces instill fear in her, to the extent that she is not able to defend her own son. The manager can ask the local authority to provide the mother and the child with some form of protection until their case is solved by the social workers World Health Organization work with children. The manager can work with the mother to understand the reason as to why she is reluctant to speak about the bruises that Tina reports to the office. From the mother’s point of view, the manager can address the issue armed with information from the guardian of the child. In addition, the manager can speak with the child so as to understand the situation in which they live. A child, at the age of John, does not know how to lie. This means that the information that John gives to the manager can be dependable. This information can be used by the manager and the concern parties to ensure that John gets a change of environment, which will ensure his own safety and health are protected.


            The nursery needs to recognize that their staff members need to understand how to handle cases of child abuse. The manager can organize training for their staff members. This will increase their knowledge on how to handle issues such as John’s within the school setting. The manager can organize with child-related organizations to address issues of handling children from abusive environments. These training workshops can employ the use of a trained social worker to pass information to the other staff members about recognizing and addressing the signs of child abuse. A professional in children’s issues can also help the staff members to know how to communicate with children.

Task 3.1

            One strategy to use in addressing child abuse in the community is fostering relationships, coalitions and networks with different child organizations (Centers of Disease Control, 2015). This means that the community together with other organizations helps address this issue. In this case study, John is a three year old boy. His care giver, Tina notices that he comes to school dirty and unkempt. Tina observes that John is not interacting well with his peers. The care giver also notices that the boy has bruises on his arms. When the care giver asks the mother, she evades this discussion. Tina and the manager can seek help from the other members of the community. This means that the care givers can use the other community members to face this issue.

            There are networks that can be created to help these children. One of the arms of this network is the local authority. In the case of John, he has attended school with bruises. This means that John has been a victim of physical violence. The local authority can investigate the family from which John comes from. It is illegal to inflict harm on a child. As such, the local authority should confront this family in order to protect the child from such abuse. There are religious groups that can work with the nursery to help the child and the family to heal from this abuse. Education institutions should also play a critical role of educating children about child abuse and providing the children with solutions on what they should do in case they are subject to child abuse. For instance, they can provide them with a hotline number which they should dial and report any cases of child abuse. It is important to understand the religious group with which John and his family associate. The hospital and healthcare providers can also form part of the network that deals with child abuse and neglect. It is important to involve the Ministries that deal with the welfare of Children. All these bodies alongside the nursery can assist John and his mother through the situations they have to face.

Task 3.2

            There is a disadvantage to engaging one approach. The adoption of one approach means that the problem is dealt with at the individual level. This means that the broader scale will remain the same. It is important to change the societal norms and systems. It will therefore mean that the settings in the society will have to go through changes or instance; the people have to learn the effects of child abuse on the child as well as the society. For instance, a child from an abusive environment tends to grow depressed and with a negative image of life. As such, these people tend to be poor performers even at the workplace. If the society can change such issues, then it means that the community benefits in a more profitable way.

            It is important to combine approaches, which will address the child abuse issue. The community needs to strengthen the individual’s knowledge and skill in combating child abuse cases. This could include demonstrating to individuals how to promote safety within schools and the society. For instance, it is important to know how to deal with a parent World Health Organization argues that their disciplining methods are not abusive, yet their child has bruises on their body. The promotion of community education (Powell and Uppal 2012) in such matters helps the entire community know and use their acquired knowledge to deal with these issues. This strategy uses reaching groups to educate the community. These groups provide the community with information and resources on how to promote health and safety for the vulnerable groups in the society (Promising Practice Network 2014).

Task 3.3

            In many cases, child abuse cases happen to children World Health Organization cannot stand up for themselves despite the pains they face (World Health Organization, 2014). Many children from abusive environments have to live with threats from their assailants. Often, they are forced to keep quiet about their ordeals. The assailants often threaten the victims to remaining quiet about their attacks. As such, children fear the consequences of sharing their issues with a person World Health Organization is not their primary care giver. The staff members need to learn how to address these children, giving them hope and assurance of their safety. This means that the nursery can train its staff members on how to handle young children World Health Organization live in fear. Improvements on early assessment should be put in place to aid in timely curbing of child abuse. Responsible officials should be trained according and equipped with proper skills that will enable them to single out children that could be subjected on child abuse through simple observation of the children’s behavior just like Tina did. Reduction in incidents of child abuse requires proper multidisciplinary team work ranging from the instructor, health care providers, lawyers, and administrative leaders. The officials should work as a team such that in case they identify a perpetrator of child abuse he/she is reported to the authorities World Health Organization apprehend him/her and ensure that s/he is arraigned in court and justice is served.

              There is also the need to constantly review and update the practices that are used in protecting children from abuse. The government and the policy makers need to create collaborations with people World Health Organization work with children. This will ensure that every concern party makes a significant contribution to the policies and laws that protect children from abuse. It is the responsibility of the community to ensure that every case of child abuse reaches the relevant authority. This means that the community can work together to protect the children and the vulnerable people from abuse and neglect.

                In order for the community to understand how they can address the issues of child abuse and neglect, they need to be equipped with information and resources in this field. Community social and health workers can organize programs that teach the community members on the measures to take when they learn of a case of child abuse. In addition, parents can take education and training programs to show them how to handle themselves in a case of child abuse. People need to grow out of the fear that their intervention can bring about destruction in a family. Protecting a vulnerable person from abuse gives the victim a chance to have a better life.


The cases of child abuse have been in existence in our society for a very long time. It is important to know the organizations and the networks that one can use to ensure that these children grow in safe and healthy environments. The groups that are susceptible to abuse need protection from assailants. The local law enforcement needs to get involved in the systems that help ease the pain for these people. In order to help a victim of abuse and or neglect, it is important to understand the type of abuse they go through. The signs of abuse are not very obvious, especially when physical evidence is absent. It is therefore important to have knowledge on all the signs of abuse, before any assistance can be rendered to the victims.

References Centers of Disease Control, 2015. Child Maltreatment: Prevention Strategies. (Online). Web Apr 11, 2016