� Assessment Type: Literature Review
Length: 1500 words (excluding references and appendices)
Description: : This assignment provides us with the opportunity to conduct a small-scale literature review, leading to a conclusion about the current state of knowledge on the topic area and possibly further questions that my need to be addressed.
Select ONE of these topics for your literature review:
� Leading change in uncertain times
� Factors impacting implementation of change
� Managing resistance in organisational change
� Change and its impact on innovation
Assessment Item Literature Review: Criteria Marking Sheet
Critical Evaluation and Relevance of Discussion (50%)
Knowledge and critique based on relevant important ideas, theoretical concepts and valid research findings.
Original, cohesive and quality analysis and discussion.
Evidence of insightful and critical understanding of issues. Critical evaluation is informed by the literature. Demonstrates well developed understanding of the topic and coherent development of ideas discussed to appropriate depth.
Organisation, Structure and Written Presentation (20%)
Clear, logical and evident structure to the organisation and presentation of the discussion in the paper.
Demonstrates acceptable standards of written work (e.g. expression and grammar)
The paper is well organised with a logical, clear and evident structure.
Carefully edited with no errors. Accurate referencing.
Use of Literature (30%)
Quality of and use of supporting literature and references
Academic reference style used correctly Excellent use of a wide variety of academically appropriate literature. References used an integrated manner that substantiates the assertions.
Extensive use of references from peer reviewed materials.
Factors Impacting Implementation of Change
Contemporary health care systems are facing diverse changes fuelled by globalization and socialization. Patients are after advanced and improved quality healthcare, elimination of waste and reduction in variances. Most of the healthcare facilities are after providing the best health care services at the lowest costs possible. Improved health care in the contemporary health care systems is calling for adapting to changes in building a competitive edge. There are myriads of factors that impact on change implementation in health care systems. The factors impacting change implementation in the health care systems are influenced by the readiness for change for the health care systems.
Organizations Readiness to Adopt Changes
Experts in change management argue that it is important to assess the organization readiness to changes before implementing the changes (Levesque et al., 2001). The changes may ruin an organization or develop a competitive edge depending on how the changes are implemented. There are different strategies of determining organizational readiness for the changes, there are different factors that influence organizational readiness to changes and on the actual change implementation processes (Kirch et al., 2005). Most of the changes in the healthcare are connected to changes in collective behaviors, redesigning systems, changes in staffing, changes in communication, changes in decision making processes, changes in the workflow and changes in the implementation of the rewarding systems among others (Lehman et al., 2002).
Organizational readiness to change is multi-faceted and multi-level, organizational readiness to change is attached to a shared vision among the stakeholders in implementing the changes, this is part of change commitment. The shared belief is instrumental in defining the collective capability as part of expressing the change efficacy (Kotter, 1996). The readiness of an organization to changes is a function of members in the organization depending on how they value the changes and on the modalities of implementing the changes. Determinants of change implementation are influenced by the availability of resources, task demands and on situational factors (Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001).
If the organizational readiness to changes is high, there are high chances that the members of the organization will initiate the changes, offer effort to the changes, exhibit persistence and show collaboration in the implementation of the changes (Weiner, 2009). It can be argued that the organizational readiness to changes is a psychological state shared among the members of the organization. The commitment to the changes starts with the members of the organization, the members of the organization must be confident with the change processes in showing collective abilities to the changes (Newton et al., 2003).
Organizational changes are unavoidable, considering that the world is facing diverse changes with globalization and socialization, as the world faces the changes, the business environment keeps on changing with the market trends, these forces organizations to adapt to the external changes (O’Connor & Fiol, 2006). Changes may also originate from within an organization; this is commonly referred to as the changes due to the internal environment.
Most organizations adapt to changes in facilitating the anticipated changes. Implementing changes in organizations calls for collective behaviors of the members of the organization in implementing the changes successfully; change management enables organizations to facilitate organizational readiness to the changes. Organizational readiness to changes is instrumental in the successful implementation of changes, most of the unsuccessful change processes in organizations has been connected to inadequate organizational readiness to changes.
Lewin’s Change Management Model
Lewin is one of the influential models used in defining organizational readiness to adopt changes. Lewin’s model focuses on Unfreezing stage, change implementing stage and in freezing stage. Unfreezing stage is part of creating readiness for the organizational changes and in fostering motivation for the changes (Lewin, 1999). Unfreezing stage is characterized with determining what is to change in the organization, ensuring that the upper management teams support the change processes, creating a need for a change in the organization and understanding and managing concerns and doubts from the members of the organization.
The change implementation stage is characterized with communicating on the change often, dispelling rumors by fostering a feedback system, empowering the employees and actively involving the employees in the change processes. Communicating in change processes is often is related to implementing and planning throughout the change processes and in describing the benefits of the changes to the members of the organization. Communication is also related to explaining at an individual level on how the changes will benefit everyone and in preparing all the members of the organization for the anticipated changes (Kuhar et al., 2004).
Dispelling rumors is useful in the change management processes. Dispelling rumors is facilitated through answering questions honestly and openly, dealing with challenges immediately and in relating the change processes with the necessities in the day to day operations of the organization (Lewin, 1999). Empowering action is facilitated through letting the managers provide the direction to the employees and in encouraging involvement of the employees in the change processes. Involving all the members of the organization in the change processes reinforces the changes by generating short-term wins. It is also wise negotiating with outside stakeholders in spearheading the changes in the organization.
Refreezing is the last stage in the Lewin’s change management model. Refreshing stage is characterized with anchoring the changes in the existing organizational culture through identifying barriers to changes that are sustainable and through identifying things that support the changes (Lewin, 1999).
Refreezing stage is also characterized with developing ways of sustaining the changes; this is made possible through creating a reward system, ensuring support of the leadership, adapting the changes in the organizational structure and in establishing feedback systems. Refreezing stage is also characterized with providing trainings and support to the employees in making sure that everyone is informed and in celebrating the success (Lewin, 1999).
Factors Impacting On the Implementation
Of Changes in Organizations
Readiness to organization changes is felt at the individual levels, departmental levels, organizational levels and at the unit levels. There are diverse factors that promote change in organizations (Cole et al., 2006). According to the social cognitive theory and motivation theory, there are diverse factors that must be observed in fostering organizational readiness to the changes. The factors identify with change valence, change efficacy and contextual factors among others (Weiner et al., 2008).
Change valence originates from the motivation theory; the theory indicated that the commitment to changes is a function of the change valence. All the members of the organization must support the changes to be implemented in the organization (Snyder-Halpern, 2001). Members of the organization must perceive the changes as beneficial, needed and worthwhile. The more the members of the organization support the organizational changes, the more it will be easy implementing the changes. Members of the organization will feel part of the organization in making it easy and fast implementing the organizational changes.
Members of organizations support organizational changes with the belief that there are attached benefits; this creates a sense of change within an organization. Support of the changes may be directly proportional to the core values of the organization. Some of the members in the organization support changes blindly as long as the opinion leaders and managers support the change movement (Amatayakul, 2005). Organizations overcome organizational changes through effectively managing cross-situational relationships. It is very difficult finding all the members of an organization supporting organizational changes for the same reasons, individual employees support organizational changes basing on the perception of the individual benefits.
Change valence originates from shared reasons that are common among the stakeholders. The individual reasons come together in supporting the overall change initiative within an organization, which fuels implementation of the changes within the organization (Holt et al., 2006).
Change efficacy is borrowed from the social cognitive theory. Change efficacy is a function of the members of the organization. The cognitive appraisals are attached to the availability of the resources, demand of the tasks and the situational factors. Efficacy explains the judgment or the comprehensive summary on the perceived capability for the members of the organization to perform the required tasks (Narine & Persaud, 2003). Leaders must formulate change efficacy judgments instrumental in allowing the members of the organization assimilate, share, acquire and integrate relevant information useful in the change processes (Hardison, 2008).
Top management teams must make sure that resources are available in supporting the change, the organization is ready to handle the changes in the current situation and that the courses of actions will bring out the best in the change processes. The leaders must establish the time limits for the change processes and the sequencing of the changes. Leaders must also gauge the knowledge and skills demanded by the change processes.
The members of the organization must be in a position to match the available resources with the task demands (Armenakis et al., 2003). Change efficacy will be high if the organizational members are ready for the changes, task demands will be achieved, the resources will be available, there will be a shared confidence and that the situational factors will be in place.
Contextual factors are also influential in the change processes for an organization. Contextual factors are connected to organizational culture, organizational policies, procedures, level of risk taking, organizational climate and organizational learning in supporting the organizational readiness to changes (Herscovitch & Meyer, 2002). Organizational culture defines the readiness of an organization to changes, organizational culture influences change valence pertaining to the organizational change. If the change fits the organizational values, it becomes easy to implement the changes. If the changes are conflicting with the organizational values, it becomes very difficult implementing the changes (Armenakis & Harris, 2002).
According to the social cognitive theory, if the organizational readiness is high, there are high chances that the members of the organization will be motivated in carrying out the changes. Initiating changes is facilitated by setting new policies, practices and procedures. Members of the organization are motivated in supporting the change processes. Resistance of changes is part of human nature, human beings resist to changes due to the fear of the unknown (Bandura, 2007). The leaders must communicate clearly on the perceived benefits of the change processes.
Changes in the health care facilities are inevitable, high organizational readiness facilitates the change processes. If an organization is not ready, there are high chances that the change processes will not succeed. High organizational readiness cultivates persistent and skilful human capital in supporting the change processes. Low organizational readiness will result in the members of the organization resisting to the changes. Organization readiness is not a guarantee that all changes will succeed, but there are high chances that the changes will be embraced by all the stakeholders.
Amatayakul, M. (2005). EHR? Assess readiness first. Healthc Financ Manage , 112-113.
Armenakis, A. A. & Harris, S. G. (2002). Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness. Journal of Organizational Change Management , 169-183.
Armenakis, A., Harris, S. & Mossholder, K. (2003). Creating readiness for organizational change. Human Relations , 681-703.
Bandura, A. (2007). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.
Cole, M. S., Harris, S. G. & Bernerth, J. B. (2006). Exploring the implications of vision, appropriateness, and execution of organizational change. Leadership & Organization Development Journal , 352-567.
Hardison, C. (2008). Readiness, action, and resolve for change: do health care leaders have what it takes? Qual Manag Health Care , 44-51.
Herscovitch, L. & Meyer, J. P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology , 474-487.
Holt, D. T., Armenakis, A. A., Harris, S. G. & Field, H, S. (2006). Toward a Comprehensive Definition of Readiness for Change: A Review of Research and Instrumentation. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Kirch, D., Grigsby, R., Zolko, W., Moskowitz, J., Hefner, D., Souba, W., Carubia, J. & Baron, S. (2005). Reinventing the academic health center. Acad Med , 980-989.
Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Kuhar, A., Lewicki, J., Modic, M., Schaab, D., Rump, C. & Bixler, S. (2004). The Cleveland Clinic’s magnet experience. Orthop Nurs , 385-390.
Lehman, W. E. K., Greene, J. M. & Simpson, D. D. (2002). Assessing organizational readiness for change. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , 197-209.
Levesque, D. A., Prochaska, J. M., Prochaska, J. O., Dewart, S. R., Hamby, L. S. & Weeks, W. B. (2001). Organizational stages and processes of change for continuous quality improvement in health care. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research , 139-153.
Lewin, K. (1999). The Complete Social Scientist: A Kurt Lewin Reader. New York: American Psychological Association.
Meyer, J. P. & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: toward a general model. Human Resource Management Review , 299-326.
Narine, L. & Persaud, D. (2003). Gaining and maintaining commitment to large-scale change in healthcare organizations. Health Serv Manage Res , 179-187.
Newton, J., Graham, J., McLoughlin, K. &-Moore, A. (2003). Receptivity to Change in a General Medical Practice. British Journal of Management , 143-153.
O’Connor, E. J. & Fiol, C. M. (2006). Creating readiness and involvement. Physician Exec , 72-74.
Snyder-Halpern, R. (2001). Indicators of organizational readiness for clinical information technology/systems innovation: a Delphi study. Int J Med Inform , 179-204.
Weiner, B. J. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change. Journal of Nanobiotechnology , 1748-1908.
Weiner, B. J., Amick, H. & Lee, S. Y. (2008). Conceptualization and measurement of organizational readiness for change: a review of the literature in health services research and other fields. Med Care Res Rev , 379-436.