Examining Methodology and Design

Examining Methodology and Design

Directions:
locate three articles, ( Peer Review articles) one quantitative, one qualitative, and one
mixed-method related to your DPI topic.( Educating type 2 diabetes patients on the
importance of medication adherence).
Create a comparison table, using correct APA formatting, to describe the methodology and
design used within each article. The table will be provided as an Appendix to the paper.
Write a 900 word paper discussing the different methodologies and designs used in each
study.
Discuss the external and internal validity issues associated with each methodology and
design.

  1. Discuss the external and internal validity issues associated with each methodology and
    design.
  2. Describe how using a different methodology or design might have been beneficial for
    each study and describe why.
  3. Summarize the paper.

Examining Methodology and Design

External and Internal Validity Issues
A study is said to achieve internal validity when the researcher can establish that the
conclusions drawn from the study are as a result of manipulation of the independent factor and
not other confounders. External validity is aimed at ascertaining the extent to which conclusions
can be generalized to a broader population (Marion and Draugalis, 2013).

EXAMINING METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 2

Ezequiel Pinto, Nídia Braz, Tânia Nascimento1 and Eurico Gomes (2017). Do Patients
Value Nutritional Therapy? A Quantitative Study in Type- 2 Diabetes Patients: Int J
Diabetes Clin Res, 4 (079), 2377-3634.
In the first study, patients did not put more importance to nutritional therapy as they did
to pharmacological treatment and physical activity. The body mass index was associated with
total carbohydrate intake. The study concluded that dietary intake did not affect the weight of
participants (Pinto, Braz, Nascimento and Gomes 2017).
The study was able to measure what it was aimed at measuring. However, the results are
not conclusive as the information obtained from patients was based on recall memory. Patients
may not be able to remember what they ate two weeks ago. Other factors may be affecting
weight gain that is not diet related, for example, the presence of co-morbid illnesses and genetic
factors. The use of daily diet intake diaries over a period will help eliminate the recall bias in
similar studies (Clemens and Demombyanes 2014).
The results of this study cannot be generalized to a broader population because the study
sample size used was small. Using a bigger sample size will give an accurate picture of the
broader population. The study did not examine the participant’s views, and how they affect the
choice of foods, they take (Nayak, 2013).
Ansari RM, Harris M, Zwar N and Hosseinzadeh H (2017). A Quantitative Research on
Self-management of Type 2 Diabetes: Prim Health Care, 10 (4172) 2167-1079.
According to the second study, patient disengagement was linked to lack of knowledge or
superficial knowledge provided by health staff to diabetic patients. The study cannot, however,
be generalized to the more significant population as there was the use of the relatively small

EXAMINING METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 3

sample. During interviews, the patient views and perceptions may be biased because of the
presence of the interviewer. The snowball technique used in sampling may also bring the aspect
of bias as the researcher may end up obtaining similar information from participants. The study
did not take into consideration the participants’ characteristics that may have a direct or indirect
impact on the outcome (Johnson, Kording, Hargrove and Sensinger, 2017).
Use of mixed methodology in the third study helped to capture all aspects of the research
problem. The qualitative aspect through interviews helped in capturing the participants’ mixed
opinions about their condition and the impact of the program. The quantitative approach helped
in comparing more demographics of participants in a detailed manner. The two methods
complemented each other ensuring the success in achieving validity (Haradhan & Mohajan
2017).

Megan Hofmann, Charlotte Dack, Chris Barker, and Elizabeth Murray, (2015). The
Impact of an Internet-Based Self-Management Intervention (HeLP-Diabetes) on the
Psychological Well-Being of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Mixed-Method Cohort Study:
Journal of Diabetes Research.
The third study may not be generalized because of the limitations that were associated
with other methodologies. The duration length of the study was short, therefore, making the
results not conclusive. The sample size was also relatively small, and study sample
characteristics were limited. Increasing the sample size to be representative of the general

EXAMINING METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 4

population of diabetic patients and increasing the duration of the study will allow transferability
of the study findings (Nayak, 2013).
Different Methodologies or Designs
Ezequiel Pinto, Nídia Braz, Tânia Nascimento1 and Eurico Gomes (2017) Do Patients
Value Nutritional Therapy? A Quantitative Study in Type- 2 Diabetes Patients: Int J
Diabetes Clin Res, 4 (079), 2377-3634.
The use of appropriate methodology is essential in ensuring the validity of a study. In the
case of the first study, combining quantitative and qualitative designs will help achieve validity.
This is because both demographic characteristics and patient views on the importance of
nutrition will be captured and their relationship upon interaction affects the outcomes of the
study (Campos, Oliveira, Feitoza, & Cattuzzo, 2017).
The use of random sampling when selecting the study sample instead of purposive
sampling will play a significant role in reducing researcher biases. Every diabetic patient should
be given an equal chance to participate. Combining interviews with questionnaires and patient
diaries will reduce the error associated with the recall memory. Patients may not be able to recall
the details for the meals taken two weeks ago and may give the wrong information to satisfy the
interviewer (Corbett, Sibbald, Stockton, & Wilson, 2015).
Ansari RM, Harris M, Zwar N and Hosseinzadeh H (2017) A Quantitative Research on
Self-management of Type 2 Diabetes: Prim Health Care, 10 (4172) 2167-1079.
The second study used a qualitative study design that aimed at exploring the reasons why
patients were disengaged. The study did not take into consideration how the individual

EXAMINING METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 5

characteristics like gender and age will affect the outcome. Using a quantitative design will help
establish whether the patient attitude exclusively affected patient engagement or the
demographic characteristics played a role. In snowball sampling, the interviewer asks a
participant to identify another for interviewing. The participant may end up choosing a friend
whom they share opinions or views. The researcher will collect similar data, which is not
representative of the general population. This will lead to the drawing of wrong conclusions
(Ihantola & Kihn, 2013).
Megan Hofmann, Charlotte Dack, Chris Barker, and Elizabeth Murray, (2015). The
Impact of an Internet-Based Self-Management Intervention (HeLP-Diabetes) on the
Psychological Well-Being of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Mixed-Method Cohort Study:
Journal of Diabetes Research.
The third study combined the study designs and used two data collection methods.
However, intentional, purposeful sampling that was used may pose a risk of biases. This type of
sampling together with the small sample size limits the findings of this study from being
generalized. Using a randomized sampling on all diabetic patients gives them an equal chance to
participate in the study. Increasing the sample size to a relatively representative number will
ensure the transferability of the study findings (Willis, 2016).
In conclusion, using a variety of methods to collect the data will ensure minimum bias in
the type of data obtained, for instance, combining diaries, interviews, and questionnaires. To
ensure validity in a study, careful planning is required. A detailed literature review ensures that
the methods to be used have been used were successfully used in similar studies. Internal validity

EXAMINING METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 6

is highly depended on how the study sample was selected, the collection of data and analyzed.
Ensuring external validity means merely making the sample size more representative.

References

Ansari RM, Harris M, Zwar N and Hosseinzadeh H (2017) A Quantitative Research on Self-
management of Type 2 Diabetes: Prim Health Care, 10 (4172) 2167-1079.
Campos, C.M.C., da Silva Oliveira, D., Feitoza, A. H. P., & Cattuzzo, M. T. (2017). Reliability

EXAMINING METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 7

Clemens M and Demombyanes G (2014). When does rigorous impact evaluation make a
difference? The case millennium villages: Center for global development.
Corbett, N., Sibbald, R., Stockton, P., & Wilson, A. (2015). Gross Error Detection: Maximising
Educational Research, 8(2), 21-26.
Ezequiel Pinto, Nídia Braz, Tânia Nascimento1 and Eurico Gomes (2017) Do Patients Value
Nutritional Therapy? A Quantitative Study in Type- 2 Diabetes Patients: Int J Diabetes
Clin Res, 4 (079), 2377-3634.
Haradhan K. Mohajan (2017). Two Criteria for Good Measurements in Research: Validity and
Reliability: MPRA Paper No. 83458, 08- 48
Ihantola, E. -M., & Kihn, L. -A. (2013). Threats to Validity and Reliability in Mixed Methods
Johnson R.E, Kording, K.P, Hargrove LJ and Sensinger JW, (2017). Adaptation to random and
systematic errors comparison of amputee and nonamputee control interfaces with
varying levels of process noise: PLoS One, 12(3).
Marion K. Slack and Jolaine R. Draugalis (2013). Establishing the internal and external validity
Megan Hofmann, Charlotte Dack, Chris Barker, and Elizabeth Murray, (2015). The Impact of an
Internet-Based Self-Management Intervention (HeLP-Diabetes) on the Psychological
Well-Being of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Mixed-Method Cohort Study: Journal of
Diabetes Research.
Nayak B. (2013). Understanding the relevance of sample size calculation: Indian J.
Ophthalmolol, 58, 469-470. of experimental studies Clinical studies; Control, quality;
Methodology; Research the Use of Data with UBA on Global Producer III (Part 2). 33rd
International North Sea Flow

EXAMINING METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 8

Willis, J. (2014). Foundations of Qualitative Research: Interpretive and Critical Approaches.

Appendices
Research
methodology

Study 1 Study 2 Study 3

Research problem The study aimed at The study explores The study aimed at

EXAMINING METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 9

analyzing the value
that type two diabetic
patients place on
nutritional therapy
and benefits to
adherence.

the reasons for
disengagement of
diabetic patients and
elements that hinder
engagement.

exploring the impact
of using newly
developed internet-
based self-
management
intervention on
psychosocial well
being of type two
diabetic adult patients.

Literature review The literature reviews
cited in this study was
related to the topic
and were obtained
from reliable articles.

Literature review used
in this study was of
recent studies and
relevant to the topic of
study.

The literature
reviewed was up to
date and relevant to
the topic of study.
The references were
well cited.

Research design A quantitative study
method was used.

A qualitative research
study was applied.

A longitudinal cohort
study that employed
both quantitative and
qualitative methods
was used.

Sampling Purposive sampling
was done where type
2 diabetic patients
who attended the
diabetic clinic were
made part of the study
after giving their
consent.

Intentional purposeful
was used, and
participants of the
study were selected
using the snowball
sampling strategy.

Intentional,
purposeful sampling
was used to recruit
type two diabetes
patients to the study.

Data collection Data collection tool
used was interviewing
about lifestyle and
physical activity.
Patients were
supposed to recall
their dietary intakes
over a period.

Patients kept diaries
on illness exposure
since diagnosis and
their daily experiences
regarding treatment
modalities and
engagement with
people. Patients were
also interviewed with
structured questions.

Data collection was
done through the use
of questionnaires and
interviews.

Data analysis Data on patient
characteristics were
analyzed and
presented as mean,
value, percentages

An interpretive
analysis was used to
analyze data from
interviews. Data were
grouped and coded

Quantitative data were
analyzed through
descriptive analysis
that involved
describing the

EXAMINING METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
10

and standard deviation before interpretation. baseline

characteristics of
patients involved in
the study.
Qualitative data from
interviews were
interpreted through
comparison of
different variables.

Data presentation Data presentation was
mainly through tables.

Data was mainly
presented using tables
and flow charts.

Data were presented
using tables.

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