Ethical decision making

Writes or Revises Learner Objectives Using the A-B-C-D Method of Writing Objectives. Incorporate Bloom’s Taxonomy; Objectives Written at the Appropriate Level of Audience. Learner objectives revised using the A-B-C-D method. Objectives make full uses of the higher levels of Bloom’s taxonomy for critical thinking when appropriate and are written at the appropriate level of audience.

Objectives include at least two learning domains: cognitive, and psychomotor and affective. Indicates which objectives are linked to which domains.Objectives include all the learning domains (cognitive, and psychomotor and affective) and indicate which objectives are linked.

Class Time Frame Covers: Topic and Content Area. (10%) Teaching Strategies for Each Topic. (10%) Evaluation Strategy for Entire Program. (10%) Rationale for Each Selected Teaching and Evaluation Strategy.(20%)

Class time frames cover all four criteria and they are both detailed and comprehensive

Personal Class Design Project: Part 2

            This class aims at teaching students about the consequences, motives, and actions of their actions during differential circumstances (Fadul, 2009). The lessons are based on rules, regulations, and laws determining the decisions made by nurses (Butts & Rich, 2013). The different liabilities incurred by nurses will be outlined as well as the modes through which they can be prevented.

Topic 2: Ethical decision making (1 hr 10 mins)

Learner ObjectiveTimeframeTeaching StrategyEvaluation Method
After the lesson, the healthcare practitioner students will be able to; summarize the code of ethics  regarding  compassion and empathydiscuss the roles of nurses towards other healthcare stakeholders and patientsdesign nursing valuesapply different decision-making modelsevaluate  the principal roles of nursing  1 hr 10 mins -Assessing the students’ level of knowledge on the topic; 5 mins -Lecture- 35 mins -Small discussion group/ scenario enactments- 20 mins -Quiz -10 minsLecture Basically, the lecture will be centered around the following; -Code of ethics  regarding  compassion and empathy -Roles of nurses towards other healthcare stakeholders and patients -Nursing values -Decision-making models -Principal roles of nursing   This teaching method will cover the greater content of the topic. This is among the most widely used and oldest teaching strategy. Considering that the class has many students, using the lecture will ensure that the information reaches them all at a single time. This will also assist in saving time. A huge amount of material will be covered quickly. Another benefit of the lecture method is that it will ensure effective utilization of class time and cost effectiveness. The lecture method will be very effective in introducing new contents regarding the topic to the students (Kress & Selander, 2012). The students in mention were taught about nursing ethics while at school. Therefore, the lecture will be a strategy of continuing the discussion about the topic. It will also be effective in summing up all that the students will have learnt at the end of the lesson. Any confusing or huge blocks of complex information will be presented and discussed as needed. The lecture method will be most dominant when teaching the lesson. One of the disadvantages of lectures is that students have a less chance to process large amounts of information. In addition, it will be impossible for the students to develop problem-solving skills. The students may also not have the chance to offer their feedback and they might lose interest quickly. In essence, lectures promote a teacher-centered as opposed to a student-centered environment. Students are passive since they merely rely on the information that the teacher provides as opposed to being actively involved in the learning process. Taking this into consideration, other methods of teaching will be incorporated. Small group discussion This will allow small student groups to work together in achieving the common goal. In the discussion groups, certain students will act as the leaders and will lead the others in discussing the assigned topic. Every member of the group will be required to contribute. As a result, students will be able to take active roles. This is based on the fact that students learn concepts and facts best if used to solve problems. For guaranteed learning, the groups will be made exciting, provocative and stimulating. The teacher will present the problems to the students where they will be required to come up with the answers. Five groups will be formed based on the five objectives of this topic. After discussions, the group leaders will present the answers to the rest of the class. This will ensure that other members in the class learn about varied topics. Moreover, those presenting the answers will be sharpening their presentation and communication skills. The tutor will express agreement when the group members are presenting and this will be a way of assessing the level of knowledge among the students regarding the topic. Forming the groups will be an advantage for the tutor since he will need to learn more on how groups forms, ensuring positive interdependence, maintaining individual accountability, developing appropriate assignments, resolving group conflict, the grading criteria, and managing an active learning environment. All these are very essential and critical for achieving cooperative learning experience. Assigned chapters The tutor will assign chapters from different books that are related to the topic to the students. The students will read these on their own during their free time and before the lesson on the second topic. This will ensure that the students gain more knowledge about the topic and if any questions arise while reading, it can be brought to the attention of the class. The following chapter will be read for this topic; -Maben, J. & Griffiths, P. (2008). Nurses in Society: starting the debate London: National Nursing Research Unit, King’s College; chapter 3 -Tschudin, V. (2003). Ethics in Nursing: the caring relationship (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann; chapter 5 -Wood, V. (2008). Nurses in Society: starting the debate. Oral evidence. London: Lala & Wood; chapter 7 Journals and websites -Home Health Care Nursing -Public Health Nursing -Center for Disease Control and Prevention: www.cdc.gov The students will read these during their free time. After reading these journals and websites, students will be familiar with various aspects regarding the topic. As a result, they will be in a position to practice in a better manner with knowledge on the implications and repercussions of engaging in unethical practices. Scenario enactments This will give students the chance to apply their class knowledge to real-life experiences. This is often a very effective method of integrating and disseminating knowledge. Basically, students will be presented with cases based on the five objectives and they will discuss them in discussion groups. As a result, students will be able to use this instructional strategy that will engage them in active discussions about problems and issues that warrant practical application. The method will highlight principal issues and dilemmas and offer a format for role play on controversial and ambiguous scenarios. The cases will be crafted based on the objectives and created from current problems or events reported through broadcast or print media. Students will have the role of discussing solutions to critical problems. Students will also develop critical thinking skills as well as the other benefits associated with small discussion groups.Quizzes After the lesson, the students will sit for a ten minutes quiz that will assess their knowledge on various issues that are related to the objectives taught. Random questions While teaching, the tutor will pose random questions to the students. This will be every effective in retaining their attention. At the start of the lecture, the tutor will pose the question; what is ethical decision making? The answers the students give will be very useful since he will be able to know what the students already know or the level of their knowledge regarding the topic. Before explaining something, random questions will be posed. A similar case will apply after various objectives are tackled, which will enable the tutor to know how the knowledge he delivered was received and assimilated. Enactments While teaching, the students will be asked to name some of the enactments they know and that are related to ethical decision making in nursing care.

Topic 2: Nursing liabilities (1 hr 20 mins)

Learner ObjectiveTimeframeTeaching StrategyEvaluation Method
After the lesson, the healthcare practitioner students will be able to; identify the diverse scenarios that can  result  to negligence and malpracticeapply nursing responsibilities comprehensively without instances oversightexplain the various consequences of liabilities and malpractices  -Recap of the previous lesson; 10 mins -Lecture- 40 mins -Small discussion group/ scenario enactments- 20 mins -Quiz -10 minsLecture This lecture will be centered around the following; -Scenarios that can  result  to negligence and malpractice -Nursing responsibilities -Consequences of liabilities and malpractices   This teaching method will cover the greater content of the topic. Considering that the class has many students, using the lecture will ensure that the information reaches them all at a single time. This will also assist in saving time. A huge amount of material will be covered quickly. Another benefit of the lecture method is that it will ensure effective utilization of class time and cost effectiveness. The lecture will make reference to the previous topic. The lecture method will be most dominant when teaching the lesson. One of the disadvantages of lectures is that students have a less chance to process large amounts of information. In addition, it will be impossible for the students to develop problem-solving skills. The students may also not have the chance to offer their feedback and they might lose interest quickly. In essence, lectures promote a teacher-centered as opposed to a student-centered environment. Students are passive since they merely rely on the information that the teacher provides as opposed to being actively involved in the learning process. Taking this into consideration, other methods of teaching will be incorporated.   Small group discussion This will allow small student groups to work together actively since every member will make a contribution. Certain students will act as the leaders and will lead the others in discussing the assigned topic. This is based on the fact that students learn concepts and facts best if used to solve problems. For guaranteed learning, the groups will be made exciting, provocative and stimulating. The students will sit round. The teacher will present the problems to the students where they will be required to come up with the answers.  3 groups will be formed based on the objectives of this topic. After discussions, the group leaders will present the answers to the rest of the class. When presenting the answers, presenters will sharpen their presentation and communication skills (National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), 2013).  The tutor will express agreement when the group members are presenting and this will be a way of assessing the level of knowledge among the students regarding the topic. Assigned chapters Students will be required to read the following chapters during their free time; -Dawoud, D. & Maben, J. (2008). Nurses in society: starting the debate. Written evidence. London: National Nursing Research Unit, King’s College; chapter 9. -Kuhse, H. & Singer, P. (2009). A Companion to Bioethics. Chichester UK: Blackwells; chapter 4. Articles from journals and websites The students will read these during their free time; -Henderson, A., Van Eps, M.A., Pearson, K., James, C. & Henderson, P. (2007). ‘Caring for’ behaviours that indicate to patients that nurses ‘care about’ them. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(2),146-153 -Family and Community Health -Journal of School Nursing -American Journal of Public Health -US department of Health and Human Service Office of Minority Health: www.omhrc.gov    Quiz After the lesson, the students will sit for a ten minutes quiz that will assess their knowledge on various issues that are related to the objectives taught. Random questions While teaching, the tutor will pose random questions to the students to retain their attention. At the start of the lecture, the tutor will pose the question; what are nursing liabilities? The answers the students give will enable the tutor in forming a platform on which to approach the topic. Before explaining something, random questions will be posed. A similar case will apply after various objectives are tackled, which will enable the tutor to know how the knowledge he delivered was received and assimilated. Enactments While teaching, the students will be asked to name some of the enactments they know and that are related to nursing liabilities.

Topic 3: Prevention of liabilities (1 hr 30 mins)

Learner ObjectiveTimeframeTeaching StrategyEvaluation Method
After the lesson, the healthcare practitioner students will be able to; develop pleasant relationships with patients as well as  their families  and friends accurately document all kinds of information including evaluations, treatment data, and the reaction of patients to carediscuss the diverse laws governing the nursing practice  illustrate established quality nursing care standardscollaborate with caregivers in health institutions to afford patients quality care    -Recap of the previous lesson; 5 mins -Lecture-  40 mins -Small discussion group/ scenario enactments- 20 mins -Quiz -5 mins Final paper- 20Lecture This lecture will focus on the following; -Developing good relationships with patients and their families  and friends -Documenting all kinds of information including evaluations, treatment data, and patients’ response to care -Diverse laws governing the nursing practice  -Quality nursing care standards -Collaborating with caregivers in health institutions to afford patients quality care   This teaching method will cover the greater content of the topic. Considering that the class has many students, using the lecture will ensure that the information reaches them all at a single time (Gastmans, 2013). This will also assist in saving time. A huge amount of material will be covered quickly. Another benefit of the lecture method is that it will ensure effective utilization of class time and cost effectiveness. The lecture will make reference to the previous topic. The lecture method will be most dominant when teaching the lesson. One of the disadvantages of lectures is that students have a less chance to process large amounts of information. In addition, it will be impossible for the students to develop problem-solving skills. The students may also not have the chance to offer their feedback and they might lose interest quickly. In essence, lectures promote a teacher-centered as opposed to a student-centered environment. Students are passive since they merely rely on the information that the teacher provides as opposed to being actively involved in the learning process. Taking this into consideration, other methods of teaching will be incorporated.   Small group discussion This will allow small student groups to work together actively since every member will make a contribution. Certain students will act as the leaders and will lead the others in discussing the assigned topic. This is based on the fact that students learn concepts and facts best if used to solve problems. For guaranteed learning, the groups will be made exciting, provocative and stimulating. The students will sit round. The teacher will present the problems to the students where they will be required to come up with the answers.  5 groups will be formed based on the objectives of this topic. After discussions, the group leaders will present the answers to the rest of the class. When presenting the answers, presenters will sharpen their presentation and communication skills. The tutor will express agreement when the group members are presenting and this will be a way of assessing the level of knowledge among the students regarding the topic. Assigned chapters The students will be required to read the following chapter during their free time; -Carrol, P. (2004). Community health nursing: A practical guide. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar publications; chapter 6 Articles from journals and websites The students will read the following during their free time; -Centers for Disease Control (2008). Community guide to prevention. Atlanta, GA. -Corbin, J. (2008). Is caring a lost art in nursing? International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42(2),163-165. -Council of Community Health Nurses (1988). Standards of community health nursing practice. Kansas City: American Nurse’s Association. -Journal of Public Health Policy -American Association of Occupational Health Nursing Journal -Journal of Community Health Nursing -Internet Health Coalition: www.ihealthcoalition.org Scenario enactments This will give students the chance to apply their class knowledge to real-life experiences. Basically, students will be presented with cases based on the five objectives and they will discuss them in discussion groups. As a result, students will be able to use this instructional strategy that will engage them in active discussions about problems and issues that warrant practical application (Benjamin & Curtis, 2010).  The method will highlight principal issues and dilemmas and offer a format for role play on controversial and ambiguous scenarios. The cases will be crafted based on the objectives and created from current problems or events reported through broadcast or print media. Students will have the role of discussing solutions to critical problems. Students will also develop critical thinking skills as well as the other benefits associated with small discussion groups.Quiz After the lesson, the students will sit for a five minutes quiz that will assess their knowledge on various issues that are related to the objectives taught. Random questions While teaching, the tutor will pose random questions to the students to retain their attention. At the start of the lecture, the tutor will pose the question; how can nursing liabilities be prevented? The answers the students give will enable the tutor in forming a platform on which to approach the topic. Before explaining something, random questions will be posed. A similar case will apply after various objectives are tackled, which will enable the tutor to know how the knowledge he delivered was received and assimilated. Enactments While teaching, the students will be asked to name some of the enactments they know and that are related to preventing nursing liabilities Final paper This will assess the students’ knowledge on issues that were taught on the three topics; ethical decision making, nursing liabilities, and preventing nursing liabilities. The test will comprise of a multiple choice question section and a section where students will be required to elaborate. The final paper will be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of the three lessons.

References

Benjamin, M. & Curtis, J. (2010). Ethics in Nursing: Cases, Principles, and Reasoning. New York: Oxford University Press

Butts, J. B. & Rich, K. (2013). Nursing Ethics: Across the Curriculum and Into Practice. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning

Fadul, J. A. (2009). Collective Learning: Applying distributed cognition for collective intelligence. The International Journal of Learning, 16(4)

Gastmans, C. (2013). Dignity-enhancing nursing care: A foundational ethical framework. Nursing Ethics, 20(2), 142–149.

Kress, G. & Selander, S. (2012). Multimodal design, learning and cultures of recognition. Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 265–268. National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) (2013). Mission. National Institutes of Health.

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