Epidemiology article

Explain the two major types of bias. Identify a peer-reviewed epidemiology article that discusses potential issues with bias as a limitation and discuss what could have been done to minimize the bias (exclude articles that combine multiple studies such as meta-analysis and systemic review articles). What are the implications of making inferences based on data with bias? Include a link to the article in your reference.

Indeed, before concluding a study’s validity, there is always a great need to be able to consider different sources of error in providing an alternative source of explanation to the established findings. Bias acts as one of the systematic errors, which is commonly identified in epidemiologic studies resulting from distinctive incorrect estimates in different exposures and the outcomes. The main types of bias commonly known to have a significant effect on the results consist of both the selection and information preference. The paper aims to explain the selection and information bias, its main limitations, its implications and possible solutions that can be used to minimize the possible preference.
When a study does not represent the main target population of the study, the selection bias is commonly reported. This means that the selection process lacks the proper randomization resulting in inaccurate finding and conclusion. Delgado-Rodriguez, & Llorca, (2004), also argue that in most cases, competing risks are usually identified when there exists a mutually exclusive relationship between the identified populations. Inaccurate sampling frame also causes such biases during the result generation. For instance, in a cross-sectional study, the selected sample may not represent the general population leading to a selection bias.
The other type of study bias is the information, which commonly occurs during the process of data collection. Delgado-Rodriguez, & Llorca, (2004) argues that the main types of information biases consist of the misclassification method, which is caused by the presence of high sensitivity of the information, ecological fallacy depicted when making different inferences in an analysis. Consequently, such actions lead to a high level of inconsistent information. The possible solutions, which can be used to solve both the selection and information bias is the proper interpretation of the collected data in connection to the identified evidence. Such measures will ensure that only evidenced data will be analyzed based on the provided data.
In conclusion, the major types of bias consist of both the selection and information is usually caused by the improper selection of the target population and data collection method respectively. The main effect of biases is that it may lead to inaccurate information in different academic studies. The main possible solutions to such studies consist of the proper interpretation of information and efficient data collection strategies that are more efficient.

Delgado-Rodriguez, M., & Llorca, J. (2004). Bias. Journal of Epidemiology & Community