Drug Treatments for HIV/AIDS

 Review Chapter 48 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text, as well as the Krummenacher et al. and Scourfield articles

* Reflect on whether or not the prevalence of HIV cases might be attributed to increased complacency due to more advanced drug treatment options for HIV/AIDS.

* Consider how health care professionals can help to change perceptions and make people more aware of the realities of the disease.

*Think about strategies to educate HIV positive patients on medication adherence, as well as safe practices to reduce the risk of infecting others.

** Write an explanation of whether or not you think the prevalence of HIV cases might be attributed to increased complacency due to more advanced drug treatment options.Then, explain how health care professionals can help to change perceptions and increase awareness of the realities of the disease. Finally, describe strategies to educate HIV positive patients on medication adherence, as well as safe practices to reduce the risk of infecting others.

Use current resources of less than five years old.

Scourfield, A., Waters, L., & Nelson, M. (2011). Drug combinations for HIV: What’s new? Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 9(11), 10011011.

Krummenacher, I., Cavassini, M., Bugnon, O., & Schneider, M. (2011). An interdisciplinary HIV-adherence program combining motivational interviewing and electronic antiretroviral drug monitoring. AIDS Care, 23(5), 550561.

Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Chapter 48, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (pp. 748762)

Drug Treatments for HIV/AIDS

HIV cases prevalence and increased complacency

HIV prevention methods and medications have proved to be very effective. However, new infections have not ceased. HIV complacency has been named as a challenge that can be addressed if all people participate in HIV/AIDS awareness. As a result of immense prevention efforts, new HIV infections have reduced from 100,000 to 40,000 annually. Regardless of the fact that new infections have reduced, HIV/AIDS is still at a record among the Hispanics and Americans. During the mid 1980s, the African Americans reported around 25% of novel cases every year and current figures place this at 45% (Krummenacher et al., 2011). The reason for the trend id simple; absence of AIDS awareness and HIV complacency. Bisexual and gay men are engaging in more risks since there is less concern about being infected. The same case applies to other high risk groups and in people with the notion that safer sex is not vital because of HIV medicines advent. There are many myths among high risk groups in regard to the significance of continued prevention efforts.

Changing perceptions and increasing awareness

There is a need for health care professionals to promote and establish an environment where appropriate, timely, and humane care can be offered to patients (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). In this regard tailored interventions should be developed so as to protect the well-being and interests of the staff and patients. For catalyzed environmental and social changes, the providers should engage in a participatory process so as to develop action plans for addressing stigma. HIV counseling should also be mainstreamed and strengthened. There should be regular assessment of the patients’ attitudes and quality of care so as to make the necessary adjustments (Krummenacher et al., 2011).  

Strategies for education on medication adherence and safe practices

There are several strategies that can be used at the community, group, and individual levels so as to meet the criteria for scientific rigor and efficacy. Some of the strategies or approaches that have proved to be very effective in treatment settings include;

Opciones/ Options Program that features a brief five to ten minute patient-centered deliberations between the provider and patient during every clinic visit (Scourfield, Waters & Nelson, 2011). Motivational interviewing techniques are normally used. The provider evaluates the patient’s drug-use and sexual behaviors, assesses the readiness of change in the patient, and elicits methods the patient has on maintaining and moving toward safer behaviors. The two come up with am individually tailored approach that is prescribed and given to the patient (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013).

The partnership for health strategy involves a brief three to five minute with the provider offering one-on-one counseling sessions to the patient on disclosure, partner-protection, and self-protection. Loss-framed messages are featured in this approach and there is an emphasis on negative or consequences or risks of risky behavior. The patient is then assisted to develop a risk reduction plan. 

With the Positive Choice- Interactive Video Doctor, the patient completes a Positive Choice risk assessment in 24 minutes on a laptop. While doing this, the patients waits for scheduled visits from the provider (Scourfield, Waters & Nelson, 2011). Based on the results of the risk-assessment, there is a video clip with an actor-portrayed Video Doctor who offers interactive risk-reduction messages. These are tailored to the risk profile, gender, as well as readiness to change. Motivational interviewing principles are used when delivering the messages in addition to an emphatic, patient-centered, as well as nonjudgmental approach. Following the video session, a personalized educational sheet and an assessment sheet for follow-up are printed. 

References

Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Chapter 48, “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” (pp. 748–762

Krummenacher, I., Cavassini, M., Bugnon, O., & Schneider, M. (2011). An interdisciplinary HIV-adherence program combining motivational interviewing and electronic antiretroviral drug monitoring. AIDS Care, 23(5), 550–561.Scourfield, A., Waters, L., & Nelson, M. (2011). Drug combinations for HIV: What’s new? Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 9(11), 1001–1011.

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