DPI Project Milestone

The purpose of this quantitative descriptive project is to compare American male ages 30-
65 suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 who adhere to education on how to manage the
disease while also taking their medication as compare to when they do not receive any
education and focus just on taking the medications prescribed to them at the facility of
Bendall Medical Associate located in Oxon Hill Maryland.

DPI Project Milestone

The 10 Strategic Points

Comments or

Broad Topic

  1. Broad Topic Area:
    Impact of Education on Diabetes Type 2 Treatment among
    American males Aged Between 30-65 years, Treated at
    Bendall Medical Associate, Oxon Hill, Maryland.


  1. Literature Review:
    a. Background of the Problem/Gap:
     In the United States of America, diabetes affects
    5.9% of the total population. The more than a
    third of the affected are not aware of the
    condition (Akinci, Healey, & Coyne, 2003).


 The American Diabetes Society has adopted a
patient education program as one of the
approaches towards the prevention of diabetes
related complications (Ahmad, 2014). Patients
are informed of the condition and self-
management measures such as; self-medication
of drug, nutritional management strategies and
mainatnaaince of body weight in order to
achieve and maintain normal body mass index.
The long term complications caused by diabetes
type 2 can be reduced by proper education to the
general population (American Diabetes
Association, 2015).
 The importance of patients education on the
management approaches used in the
management of diabetes type 2 is that there the
condition is managed at home and the patients
only attend clinical appointments for the
assessment of the adherence to the treatment
regime and their response to the treatment
(Akinci, Healey, & Coyne, 2003).

b. Theoretical Foundations (models and theories to be
foundation for study):


c. Review of Literature Topics With Key Organizing
Concepts or Topics for Each One
The patient’s Level of knowledge
 Educating patients on the treatment of diabetes
type on the management of the condition
decreases the length of hospital stay and
improves the patient’s quality of life while
reducing the risk of developing complication.
The patient’s level of information concerning the
management of diabetes type is proportional to
the extent of the education on the disease.
Several studies have only studied the patient’s
exposure to education on diabetes type 2, but
have not determined a quantitative measure of
the level of knowledge on the treatment of
diabetes (World Health Organization, 2016).

Level of Adherence to Treatment Regime
 The education of patients on diabetes type 2 has
been showed to have an impact on the results of
the management regime for diabetes type 2
(Powers, Bardsley, Cypress, Duker, Funnell,
Fischl, & Vivian, 2015).


 The level of patient’s adherence has been shown
to vary from one patient to another. Several
factors have been found to be associated with the
change in the level of adherence to the treatment
of diabetes type 2 patients (Chrvala, Sherr, &
Lipman, 2016).
 Adherence to the treatment regime has been
measured in terms of the patient’s observation of
the drug prescription, the attendance to the
aerobics sessions for weight management and
the ability to keep up with appointment
schedules with physicians (Chrvala, Sherr, &
Lipman, 2016)..
 Patients who have adequate information have
been reported to encourage members of their
families to seek diabetes screening services and
this has been attributed to the increased level of
awareness created by clinicians at the first
contact on the hereditary characteristic of
diabetes type 2. However, there is minimal
evidence to show the correlation between
patient’s demographic characteristics such as age
and gender and education on the condition and


the level of adherence of the patient to the
diabetes management regime (Powers et al.,

Number Of Ocurring Complication
 In previous studies, the occurrence of the
complications associated with diabetes has been
studies as an indicator of the adherence of the
affected to prescribe management and treatment
(American Diabetes Association, 2018).
 In other studies the frequency of the occurrence
of the complications of diabetes type 2 has been
associated with the level of knowledge of the
patients regarding the disease process, side
effects and benefits of adhering to the
management regime. Additionally, the
occurrence of diabetes type 2 has been used as
parameter to determine the level of other non-
pharmacological interventions including
nutritional intervention and the physical
exercises (ADA, 2018).
 The recurrence of the symptoms among the
patients under the conventional treatment
standards is an indication of the ineffectiveness


of the treatment on the patient or lack of
adherence to the treatment. Statistically, high
rates of the occurrence of the complications
resulting from diabetes type are related to the
lack of patients’ education on the condition
(ADA, 2015).

d. Summary

 Gap/Problem: There is need to
investigate the impact of the education to
the diabetes type 2 and the demographic
factors such as age and sex
 Prior studies: Prior research findings
clearly indicate that there is need for
provision of education to the affected
patients since patient education has been
associated with positive outcomes for
persons diagnosed with diabetes type 2.
 Quantitative application: There are
considerable numbers of diabetes type 2
cases who meet the demographic criteria
and from whom, with their consent, data
concerning education on the diabetes
type 2 may be collected from.


 Significance; The information on the
impact of patient education on diabetes
type will help in increasing or reducing
the patient education on the specific
group of patients in respect to their
demographic characteristics.


  1. Problem Statement:
    While literature clearly indicates the positive impact of
    patient education on the outcomes of diabetes type 2
    treatment, it is not known the impact of patient
    education on patient diagnosed with diabetes type 2, and
    the demographic factors including age and sex.


  1. Clinical/PICOT Questions:
    Among the males aged 30-65 years and diagnosed
    with type 2 diabetes, how does patient education on
    diabetes impact on the treatment over a period of
    one year.

Sample Location: Oxon Hill, Maryland.

Population: Male diabetes type 2 patients aged 30-65 years
Sample: 384 participants

Define 5. Define Variables:


Variables a. Independent Variable: patient education

b. Dependent Variable: impacts, measured in the level
of knowledge and re-occurrence of the symptoms

and Design

  1. Methodology and Design:
     This research project will use quantitative
    methodology. The research study design used in this
    project is cross sectional study design.


Purpose Statement:
 The purpose of this quantitative research project is
to determine the impact of patient education on the
outcomes of treatment if diabetes type 2 among
mean aged 30-65 years at Oxon Hills, Maryland.
The patient education will be measured by patients’
level of knowledge on the condition. The impact will
be indicated by the re-occurrence of the
complications associated with diabetes type 2.


 Data Collection Approach:
The data will be collected from the eligible respondents.
The data will be collected by use of an open ended
questionnaire which will collect information on the patient
education and its impact on the treatment outcomes for the




Data Analysis Approach:
 The patients current health status will be used to
describe the impacts of education on treatment of
diabetes type 2 and knowledge parameters will be
used describe the level of knowledge given to the



Ahmad Ali, S. (2014). The role of educational level in glycaemic control among patients with
type II diabetes mellitus. Int J Health Sci (Qassim).; 8(2): 177–187. PMCID:

Akinci, F., Healey, B. J., & Coyne, J. S. (2003). Improving the health status of US working
adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A Review. Disease Management & Health
Outcomes, 11 (8), 489-498.   
American Diabetes Association. (2015). 4. Foundations of care: education, nutrition, physical
activity, smoking cessation, psychosocial care, and immunization. Diabetes care,
38(Supplement 1), S20-S30.
American Diabetes Association. (2018). 4. Lifestyle Management: Standards of Medical Care in
Diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S38-S50.
Chrvala, C. A., Sherr, D., & Lipman, R. D. (2016). Diabetes self-management education for
adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the effect on glycemic
control. Patient education and counseling, 99(6), 926-943.
Powers, M. A., Bardsley, J., Cypress, M., Duker, P., Funnell, M. M., Fischl, A. H., … & Vivian,
E. (2015). Diabetes self-management education and support in type 2 diabetes: a joint
position statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of

Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Journal of the Academy
of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(8), 1323-1334.
World Health Organization. (2016). Global report on diabetes. World Health Organization.