DNA and RNA.

Describe the difference among replication, transcription, and translation for both DNA and RNA.


All living organisms have their unique genome replication system where DNA is
replicated by a DNA polymerase that is translated from mRNA transcribed or translated from
the genome. Applied in the traditional translation system composition, no form of DNA
replication was apparently evident for the reason that tRNA as well as the nucleoside
triphosphates that are included in the translation system significantly suppressed DNA
replication. While using a different system, it was discovered that the genomic DNA was
replicated about ten times in twelve hours at a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius.
Additionally, it was demonstrated that the new system provided a step meant for the in vitro
construction of artificial genome replication.

Replication, Transcription, and Translation

Replication is referred to as the process by which DNA polymerase uses DNA as a
template to make more DNA. DNA polymerase is a specific type of enzymes that synthesize
DNA molecules from the building blocks of DNA called deoxyribonucleotides which are
individual DNA bases. DNA polymerases are very critical elements in replication of DNA,
and in most cases, they operate in pairs to create two identical DNA strands from one original
molecule of DNA. In other words, in replication, it is DNA that is copied in one direction into
another molecule of DNA. DNA polymerases, nucleotides and other proteins are used to
copy DNA in eukaryotic cells (Hudson et al., 2014).

Running Head: Replication, Transcription, and Translation For Both DNA And RNA 2
Transcription is referred to as the process in which an RNA polymerase leverages on
DNA as a template to make RNA. From a DNA molecule, a small fraction is used to produce
single-stranded products. Studies have demonstrated that RNA polymerases are more
susceptible to errors than the DNA polymerases. In transcription, DNA is copied into RNA
where protein complexes become the starting point for DNA to be copied into RNA. It is
noteworthy that the RNA binding proteins can adjust protein expression through regulation of
the stability and translation of mRNAs (Hudson et al., 2014).
Studies have demonstrated that the binding capacity of DNA and RNA especially of
the growing body of proteins usually plays a critical role in varying the cell survival, gene
expression as well as homeostasis. Additionally, studies have shown that several transcription
factors can bind various types of RNA that subsequently enables the transcription factors to
bind to the mRNA products of transcription to regulate their turnover as well as integrating
other signals for example of stress. In some cases, RNAs can target different types of proteins
by way of direct interactions (Sakatani et al., 2015).
Translation is considered the process in which a ribosome uses RNA as a template to
make protein. Information in the RNA molecule is usually read by base-pairing. Transfer
RNAs (tRNAs), usually relate each of the twenty amino acids with a specific group of three-
nucleotide sequences by physically combining an amino acid with a short area of RNA that
can base pair. After that, the ribosome checks to ensure that the right tRNA is associating
with a three-nucleotide stretch of the template RNA. Once confirmed, then the ribosome
catalyzes the addition of the sequent amino acid (protein building block) to a growing
peptide. In other instances, when the RNA has been made, some proteins join to help in
cutting out specific RNA sequences called introns then followed by a modification of the
initial base of the RNA and addition of bases to the end (Travers et al., 2015).

Running Head: Replication, Transcription, and Translation For Both DNA And RNA 3


Hudson, W., Ortlund, E., (2014, October). The Structure, Function and Evolution of Proteins
That Bind DNA and RNA.
Sakatani, Y., Ichihashi, N., Kazuta, Y., Yomo, T., (2015, May). A Transcription and
Translation-Coupled DNA Replication System Using Rolling-Circle Replication.