Application: Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Diabetes is an endocrine system disorder that affects millions of children and adults (ADA,
2011). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations including heart
disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for
treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes
as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations. In this
Assignment, you compare types of diabetes including drug treatments for type 1, type 2,
gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
� Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and
� Select one type of diabetes.
� Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including
proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations
related to treatment.
� Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on
patients including effects of drug treatments.
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
�Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational,
and juvenile diabetes.
�Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper
preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to
�Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including
effects of drugs treatments
�You must have introduction and conclusion
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Diabetes refers to an endocrine system sickness. It affects millions of adults and children.
Ignoring the disorder or lack of proper treatment results to a number of complications including
blindness, neuropathy, kidney failure, stroke, and heart disease. Drug therapy and nutritional
management are key in treating the disorder. Treatment recommendations are influenced by
various factors including patient behaviour factors and type of diabetes. This papers aims at
differentiating between diabetes type 1 and 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Moreover, there
will be a discussion on the proper preparation and administration of one of the drugs for a
specific type of disorder, the dietary considerations, impacts, and effects of the drug (Cramer,
Diabetes type 1, Diabetes type 2, Gestational and Juvenile Diabetes
Diabetes type 1/ Juvenile Diabetes: other names used to refer to this type of diabetes
include sugar diabetes, brittle diabetes, or IDDM (Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus). Two
forms of juvenile diabetes include immune-mediated diabetes and idiopathic type I diabetes.
Although diabetes type 1 may start at any age, it is more common in young adults and children.
The exact cause of the disease is unknown although it is believed that environmental and genetic
factors play a role. The immune system attacks and consequently destroys the pancreatic cells
that produce insulin. The disease appears suddenly with symptoms such as blurred vision,
frequent urination, unusual thirst, and mood changes.
Diabetes type 2: this metabolic disease results when the body is unable to use properly
or make adequate amounts of insulin. It is also referred to as NIDDM (Non-Insulin-Dependent
Diabetes Mellitus). As a result of the insufficient utilization and production of insulin, blood
sugar cannot be moved into cells. There is no known cure to this chronic disease. It is the
commonest form of diabetes and accounts for 90- 95 percent of all diabetes cases (Saltiel &
Olefsky, 1996). Although the cause of diabetes type 2 is unknown, genetic factors are believed
to play a great role. Although a person may be having the tendency to develop the disease, there
has to be another factor such as obesity for the disease to occur. The development of the disease
can be delayed or prevented through following a program that reduces or eliminates the risk
Gestational diabetes is a condition where glucose levels elevate or diabetic symptoms
appear in a pregnant woman who has never been diagnosed with the disease. The diabetic
symptoms disappear after delivery. The common cause is insulin resistance. Some predisposing
factors include obesity and overweight, family history of the disease, and pre-diabetes.
Drug, preparation, and administration
Diabetes type 2 can be treated through oral and injectable medications. Sulfonylureas is
an oral medication and comprises of Glyburide (DiaBeta Glynase), Glimepiride (Amaryl), and
Glipizide (Glucotrol). These drugs are beneficial in that they work quickly to stimulate insulin
release. The drug acts for more than twenty four hours, the dose ranges from 1-8 mg and one
dose should be taken daily.
It is worth noting that there is no identified diabetes type 2 diet. However, there is a need
to consume more low-fat and high-fiber diet foods that include whole grains, vegetables, and
fruits. Moreover, a person should consume less animal products, sweets, and refined
carbohydrates (O’Donovan et al., 2003). Therefore, a person suffering from diabetes type 2
should seek assistance from a registered dietician so as to plan a meal that is compatible to the
lifestyle, food preferences, and health goals.
A patient should be extremely keen on consistency. This implies that so as to keep the
blood sugar even, the same food amounts should be consumed with a similar proportion of fats,
proteins, and carbohydrates daily at a particular time of the day (Hollander et al., 1998).
Low glycemic index foods are particularly beneficial. Glycemic index measures how
quickly the blood sugar rises after consuming a certain food. Low glycemic foods ensure
achievement of a blood sugar that is more stable. These foods have higher fiber content.
Long-term and short-term impacts on patients
Damage to the blood vessels is recognized as the notorious long-term effect in people
suffering from diabetes type 2. As a result, patients are five times likely to develop stroke or
heart disease. Apart from damaged blood vessels, other complications include sexual
dysfunction, kidney disease/ diabetic nephropathy, nerve damage/ diabetic neuropathy, stillbirth
and miscarriage, eye problems such as cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal
detachment, and foot problems. Basically, foot problems are as a result of circulation challenges
that might be brought about by deformities or skin infections to the foot (Scheen, 1997).
Considering that diabetes type 2 damages the nerves, a person may not feel injury on the foot
until there is infection or a sore. One of the most challenging long-term effects of the type 2
diabetes is that the disease is chronic and lasts for life. Therefore, there is a need to adjust one’s
lifestyle so as to reduce complication chances and prevent the disease from getting worse.
In this regard, there is a need for healthy eating, limited alcohol, refrain from smoking,
regular exercise, keeping well through Pneumococcal and flu vaccinations, and regular reviews.
Effects of drug treatment
After administering Sulfonylureas, insulin is released abruptly and this helps in relieving
the symptoms. However, possible side effects include skin rash, nausea, low blood sugar,
bloating, anemia, metallic taste, sun sensitivity, weight gain, and hypoglycemia.
Regardless of the particular causes of diabetes type 1 and 2 and gestational diabetes,
proper diabetes management and physical exercise are vital for managing diabetes. Drug
therapies are more effective if accompanied with exercise and appropriate diet.
Cramer, J. A. (2004). A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. Diabetes
care, 27(5), 1218-1224.
Hollander, P. A., Elbein, S. C., Hirsch, I. B., Kelley, D., McGill, J., Taylor, T., & Hauptman, J.
(1998). Role of orlistat in the treatment of obese patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year
randomized double-blind study. Diabetes care, 21(8), 1288-1294.
O’Donovan, D., Feinle-Bisset, C., Jones, K. L., & Horowitz, M. (2003). Gastrointestinal
disorders in diabetes. Blackwell.
Saltiel, A. R., & Olefsky, J. M. (1996). Thiazolidinediones in the treatment of insulin resistance
and type II diabetes. Diabetes, 45(12), 1661-1669.
Scheen, A. J. (1997). Drug treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the 1990s.
Drugs, 54(3), 355-368.