Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and
juvenile diabetes.

  • Consider one type of drug used to treat type 2 diabetes including proper preparation and
    administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
  • Think about the short-term and long-term impact of type 2 diabetes on patients including
    effects of drug treatments.
    ** Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
    ~ Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational,
    and juvenile diabetes.
    ~ Describe one type of drug used to treat type 2 diabetes including proper preparation and
    administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment.
    ~ Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects
    of drugs treatments.
    *** Use drug generic name. Use Resources of less than 5years old.
    Resources to consider:
    > Peterson, K., Silverstein, J., Kaufman, F., & Warren-Boulton, E. (2007). Management of
    type 2 diabetes in youth: An update. American Family Physician, 76(5), 658-664.
    > Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced
    practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
    Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced
    practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Diabetes, also referred to as diabetes mellitus, DM, is the disorder in which the body of a
person is not capable of storing and using glucose properly. There are different types of diabetes
including type 1 diabetes, type diabetes, gestational diabetes, surgically induced diabetes,
chemically 8induced diabetes, and LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults) or type 1.5
diabetes. While many people are aware of the different types of diabetes that are in existence,
they do not know the difference between types of diabetes (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013).
The difference between different types of diabetes is as follows: type 1 diabetes affects
young people mostly below 30 years because 70% of diagnoses take place before an individual
reaches the age of 30 years. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes affects adults and overweight
people. That is why it was referred to as adult onset diabetes (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013).

DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENT 2
Unlike diabetes type 1 and 2, gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy and it is
caused by increased production of hormones which make the body to be less capable of using
insulin the way it should. On the other hand, surgically induced diabetes result when surgery is
done on the pancreas for whatever reason; this is because ability of the pancreas to produce
insulin usually change (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). Chemically induced diabetes is caused by
some types of medication such as steroids, specifically prednisone or cortisone, which cause
blood sugar level of a person to be higher than normal. Unlike other types of diabetes, diabetes
type 1.5 (LADA) is a more gradually progressing variation of type 1 diabetes and is usually
misdiagnosed as type 2 because it is most common in those age 35 and older.
There are different types of drugs that are used to treat diabetes type 2. Metformin is one
type of drugs used to treat diabetes type 2. Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug used to treat
diabetes. Metformin is manufactured by Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. In the US and UK,
metformin is approved as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. There are many brand names in which
metformin is sold including diaformin, glucophage, diabex, riomet, dianben, fortamet, obimet,
and glumetza (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013).
Metformin contains metformin hcl (the active ingredient metformin hydrochloride).
Metformin is available as a monotherapy (a single treatment) or in combination with other drugs.
In the USA, metformin was approved in 1994 and is prescribed as 500mg/5ml oral solution sugar
free, 500mg tablets, 500mg oral powder sachets sugar free, 850mg tablets, 1g oral powder
sachets sugar free, 500mg modified-release tablets, 1g modified-release tablets, or 750mg
modified-release tablets. Metformin is also available in form of SR, a modified release or slow
release for of the medication (Schwanstecher, 2011). However, modified release forms of

DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENT 3
metformin can be prescribed for individuals experiencing significant gastro-intestinal intolerance
due to standard metformin.
Metformin assists the body to control blood sugar in many ways. Metformin assists type
2 diabetics to respond better to their own insulin, reduce the amount of sugar produced by the
liver, and reducing the amount of sugar absorbed by the intestines. Metformin is not likely to
cause weight gain or hypoglycemia when taken alone but these side effects are more likely when
it is taken in conjunction with a sulfonylurea or insulin.
According to Schwanstecher (2011), metformin is a type 2 diabetic drug, and assist
diabetics to respond normally to insulin. The ultimate objectives of metformin are to reduce
blood sugar level and maintain this level just like most diabetic drugs. Metformin can be used in
conjunction with other diabetic drugs, and diabetics are also supposed to use exercise and diet to
help control their condition.
Despite the fact that there is drug (Metformin) that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes,
proper diet can also help significantly in reduction or treatment of type 2 diabetes
(Schwanstecher, 2011). A diabetic will eat diet as specified by physician depending on whether
he is producing high or low sugar. Even though other people are injected with insulin, proper diet
is still the best way of reducing or maintaining balanced sugar level. In most cases, diabetics are
advised to eat more or less sugary foods.
Schwanstecher (2011) asserts that despite the fact that type 2 diabetes can be treated, it
has both long-term and short-term effects. Type 2 diabetes damages the blood vessels. For this
reason, individuals with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart diseases or
have a stroke. Chronic diabetes may also result to the following complications: eye problems
such as glaucoma, cataracts, retinal detachment, or diabetic retinopathy; sexual dysfunction;

DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENT 4
nerve damage, also called diabetic neuropathy; foot problems- these are majorly because of
circulation difficulties that can lead to skin infections or deformations to the foot; miscarriage
and still birth; kidney disease, also referred to as diabetic nephropathy.
One of the most difficult long-term effects associated with diabetes type 2 is the fact that
the disease is for life. This implies that in most cases, a person will need to adjust permanently
his/her lifestyle so as to prevent it from getting worse, and to reduce the chances of
complications. Furthermore, metformin- drug used to treat type 2 diabetes- is likely to cause
weight gain or hypoglycemia especially when taken in conjunction with a sulfonylurea or
insulin.

DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENT 5

References

Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.), (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced
practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Schwanstecher, M. (2011). Diabetes: Perspectives in drug therapy. Heidelberg [Germany:
Springer-Verlag.

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