Developmental Models of supervision

Developmental Models of supervision

  1. Brief explanation of why it is important to incorporate Stoltenberg (2008) developmental
    supervision model and its domains for clinical supervision.
  2. Fully describe Stoltenberg (Assessment techniques Domain) expanding on its function
    and purpose to address the trainees confidence in, and ability to conduct, psychological
    assessments.
  3. Explain how you would potentially integrate the Stoltenberg (Assessment techniques
    Domain) using a type of Video self-modeling for supervision and training purposes
    Reference
    Stoltenberg, C. D. (2008). Developmental approaches to supervision. In C. A. Falender &
    E. P. Shafranske (Eds.), Casebook for clinical supervision: A competency-based approach
    (pp. 39-56). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Huhra, R. L., Yamokoski-Maynhart, C. A., & Prieto, L. R. (2008). Reviewing videotape in
    supervision: A developmental approach. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(4),
    412-418.

Developmental Models of Supervision

Traditionally, clinical supervision for mental health practitioners was conducted like an
apprenticeship program. Under this arrangement, the student was assigned to a registered
practitioner where he or she would learn the trade through assisting, observing, and receiving
periodic feedback from the supervisor. This model of supervision was anchored on a general
assumption that qualified practitioners would make equally qualified supervisors. However, this
assumption was faulted as findings revealed that the practitioners were not as good in
supervising as they were in their practice. This finding has led to the development of alternative
models of supervision. The developmental model is one of the examples of the modern models
of supervision.

DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS OF SUPERVISION 2
Developmental models of supervision denote the progressive stages that an apprentice
follows as he or she develops from being a novice to an expert (Freeburg, 2008). The supervisee
is expected to have discrete skills and characteristics at each stage of development. For instance,
a supervisee at the novice stage would be expected to have limited skills and ;lack expertise in
handling a counseling session, while a supervisee at the expert stage will be expected to be
highly skilled and have the confidence to conduct a counseling session with ease (Stoltenberg,
2008). The application of this model of supervising to a clinical setup allows the supervisees to
develop skills as they advance from novice to expert. Developmental Models of Supervision
empowers the supervisees to apply the knowledge they gained from the previous stages into their
practice thereby building confidence and expertise.
Stoltenberg’s integrated development model (IDM) is one of the most researched models
of supervision. This model was developed by Stoltenberg in 1981 and later on improved by
Stoltenberg and Delworth in 1987 and finally by Stoltenberg, Delworth, and McNeill in 1998.
According to the IDM, there are three levels through which a counselor develops. This includes
level 1, level 2, and level 3. Supervisees at the first level are considered entry level or novice
supervisees. This group exhibit high level of motivation with equally high levels of anxiety.
They are also known to fear evaluation. The second level comprise of supervisees at the mid-
level. Their level of motivation and confidence fluctuate, they often link their mood to the
success they register with their clients. The third and final level comprises those at the expert
level. These supervisees have attained stability in motivation and confidence. They can handle
different cases presented by their clients with ease and are not afraid of evaluation (Stoltenberg,
& Delworth, 1987).

DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS OF SUPERVISION 3
According to Stoltenberg & Delworth (1987), the use of videotape review in supervision
allows the supervisor to access a verbatim report on how the counseling session conducted by the
supervisee went. This recording will allow the supervisor to gauge the progress of the supervisee
in his or her professional training. As a supervisor, I would eliminate the need for live
supervision and replace it with videotape recording. I would then take the recorded tape and
analyze it to see how the supervisee conducted the counseling session. I would use the videotape
to allow the supervisee reflect on how he or she conducted his or her previous sessions. This will
enable the supervisee to learn and grow both in confidence and expertise.
The use of video technology in supervision achieves three basic goals of supervision. The
first goal is monitoring, which ensures that clients receive the best service possible. The second
is evaluation, which entails giving feedback on the skills and abilities of the supervisees. The
third and final goal is to help the student in career development. To achieve this goal, I would
give timely feedback to the student as regards their performance in each session (Huhra et al,
2008).

DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS OF SUPERVISION 4

References

Stoltenberg, C. D. (2008). Developmental approaches to supervision. In C. A. Falender & E. P.
Shafranske (Eds.), Casebook for clinical supervision: A competency-based approach (pp.
39–56). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Huhra, R. L., Yamokoski-Maynhart, C. A., & Prieto, L. R. (2008). Reviewing videotape in
supervision: A developmental approach. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(4),
412–418. 
Stoltenberg, C.D., & Delworth, U. (1987). Supervising counselors and therapists. San Fransisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Freeburg, M. N. (2008). Supervisee development levels and the supervisor’s self-disclosure.
Michigan: ProQuest.

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