Define the condition. (dementia)
What can cause dementia?
The symptoms of dementia
Fully in text citation for each information (author name, date, page number)
Plagiarism free.
Sources must be issued after 2004, no magazine, or website( journal articles only )


Dementia is a loss of cognitive ability in a manner which contradicts normal aging as
expressed by McNamara (2011). Dementia attacks the brain cognitive areas such as memory,
cognition, attention impairment, language fluency and even problem solving ability (Hswen &
Phinney, 2010). Though there is no cure for dementia, only the symptoms can be treated.
Since dementia is a memory impairment disease, the patients have low learning ability,
lack of capability to reason, poor memory recall as well as un-sequenced thoughts in addition to
impaired feelings and activities (Whalley & Breitner, 2009). Stevens (2012) reflects on behaviors
of individuals with dementia as self-denial. When the symptoms persist, these individuals end up
in depression and anxiety. Most research as supported by Nornholm (2012) also linked
aggression and psychosis to the individuals suffering from dementia. Dementia has different
levels according to the progressive period and therefore, it is advisable to asses each dementia
case independently to avoid the ‘mixed dementia treatment’ (McNamara, 2011).
Dementia originates from different perspectives like; Fixed cognitive impairment due to
brain injury causing cognitive impairment; Slow progressive through brain cells defect from
functioning which occurs gradually. Progressive disease by rapid brain infection also causes

dementia (Whalley & Breitner, 2009). Diagnosis of dementia is done after six months when the
symptoms can define the type of dementia, as the early stages are referred as delirium
(Nornholm, 2012).
Hswen and Phinney (2010) indicated that no treatment or cure of dementia has been
realized but there are medications for the symptoms and cognitive enhancement like
Antipsychotic drugs. Cognitive and behavioral impairment can thus be treated by Antidepressant
drugs, which is also advisable for treatment of depression (Stevens, 2012).



Hswen, Y., & Phinney, A. (2010). The meaning of activity for people with dementia: Examining
the perspectives of dementia patients and their families. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 6(4),
McNamara, P. (2011). Dementia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger.
Nornholm, M. (2012). Ethnicity and dementia: Three challenges in diagnosing dementia.
Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 8(4), P564.
Stevens, J. (2012). Stand up for dementia: Performance, improvisation and stand-up comedy as
therapy for people with dementia; a qualitative study. Dementia, 11(1), 61-73.
Whalley, L. J., & Breitner, J. C. (2009). Dementia (2 nd ed.). Abingdon: HEALTH Press.