Clinical Setting Comparison
MedSurg vs. Perioperative
You will work with one other peer in your group to write a 5- to 7-page paper, including references. Select two diverse clinical settings; for example: ED versus ICU, PeriOp versus Med-Surg, Pediatrics versus Adults, or Sports Medicine vs. Nursing Home, etc. For your two selected clinical settings, compare and contrast the content, features, need, and value of data, information, knowledge, and decision support to clinical practitioners in those settings. Make sure that you include the four expanding rings of information (EMR, warehouse, regional, NHIN/PHIN) in your analysis. Describe how the differences would alter the design or features of a clinical system. Defend your statements where you claim either similarities or differences between your two settings.
Collaborate with your teammates to write a 5- to 7-page paper. Your paper should
Be focused, well organized, and unified
Use language that complies with standard English usage and APA guidelines; is free of errors in grammar, punctuation, word choice, spelling, and format; reflects language consistent with professional practice and appropriate for the audience, and correctly documents and cites sources
Be done by the team with all members contributing substantive content and be limited to 5 to 7 pages, including references
Include no more than two large tables, charts, or figures as an appendix
Be format in APA style
Clinical Setting Comparison
MedSurg Vs. Perioperative
The medical-surgical clinical setting comprises of the environment in which patients are presenting with medical conditions, and surgical conditions are offered healthcare services. The perioperative clinical setting compromises of the clinical setting in which the patients are prepared for surgical procedures, the care given during the surgical procedures and the care given after the surgical procedure. Based on the fact that the nature of the needs of the patients in the two clinical settings are different but related, there are similarities and differences between the two settings in terms of the nature of the data and information, and knowledge and decisions making support system necessary in the two settings as discussed in the following essay (Lewis, Bucher, Heitkemper., Harding, Kwong, & Roberts, 2016).
The perioperative clinical setting has extensive requirements to set the standards of care. The perioperative clinical setting is composed of various items, supplies, and equipment. The healthcare team is composed of several cadres of professionals, including the surgeons, several various nurses, and anesthetists. The perioperative care given to the patients involves the preoperative care given to the patient before the beginning of the surgical procedure, during the operation procedure and after the surgical operation. The three phases of care involve multiple procedures and implemented by several healthcare care professionals. Therefore, the data and information recorded from this clinical setting are real-time. The technology required for the information and data required is sophisticated. The information required for the perioperative care should result in the corporation of a larger number of hospital clinical department including the laboratory, intensive care unit and the surgical units for the management. Therefore, the data and the information collected should integrate the clinical aspects of the perioperative setting with the sophisticated perioperative clinical setting. On the other hand, the medical-surgical clinical setting is comprised of specific healthcare professionals who provide particular healthcare services. As opposed to the perioperative care setting, medical-surgical data focuses on a few specialized services meant to serve a patient who has undergone surgical procedures or have been diagnosed with medical disorders (Gordon, Rezzadeh, Li, Vardanian, Zelken, Shores, & Jarrahy, 2015). The data and information gathered from the medical-surgical care setting are concerned with several pharmacological interventions as opposed to the perioperative care setting that mainly focuses on surgical procedures. The However, both the clinical settings are similar in certain ways. The perioperative care setting is concerned about surgical procedures. Similarly, the perioperative care setting is concerned about providing care to the patients who have undergone surgical operations within the perioperative clinical care setting. Also, the medical and surgical clinical setting is responsible for the preparation of patients for surgical procedures. Therefore, the medical-surgical care given is a continuation of the care started in the perioperative care setting. As a result, the information technology applied to the perioperative clinical setting should encompass taking care of the needs care given to the patient after the surgical procedure. Additionally, the information concerning the surgical procedure, the healthcare professionals involved and the instruments used is passed on from the intraoperative unit onto the medical-surgical unit. The sharing of the information is critical to ensuring that the post-operative care given to the patients conforms to the mode of the surgical procedure given to the patient (Hollenbeck, Bomar, Wenger, & Yaszay, 2017).
The Nationwide Health Information Network (NHIN) operates in a similar way for both the perioperative clinical setting and the medical, surgical setting. The NHIN aims at collecting and storing data in a system that provides universal access to healthcare information to everyone available globally. The first step of the NHIN mode of operation is data collection from across several healthcare setting. The data sources include laboratories, operative theatres and clinical wards including the medical-surgical ward settings. Therefore, the type of the data collected from the two clinical settings differs. The terminologies used for the data collected from each of the clinical settings are different for each other. The terminologies collected from the perioperative clinical setting are likely to be comprised of terms concerned about the type of the procedure being undertaken, the type of surgical instruments being used and the various types of the healthcare professionals involved in the perioperative clinical setting. On the other hand, the data and information collected from the medical and surgical clinical setting likely comprise of terminologies including the pharmacological information about the data and the continuation of care after the surgical operation procedure. The data collected that comprises of different terminologies across the several healthcare settings are translated into similar terminologies based on a standardized set of medical and surgical terms. The purpose is to create a universal set of data and information that can be understood by several healthcare professionals from different healthcare settings. Both the perioperative and medical-surgical data and information require the consent of the patients for the access to their information by several sets of users. Similarly, both the perioperative and medical-surgical data collected from both the clinical settings is stored in a data warehouse. The data warehouse provides storage for medical-surgical information as well as the perioperative data collected from the clinical setting. Therefore, the authorized and authentic users can access the data from within the warehouses in future as a reference. The data stored in the warehouse for both the medical-surgical and perioperative healthcare is used to standardize across the two clinical settings by healthcare professionals. Several different healthcare service institutions can, therefore, compare their standards of care against the clinical care provided by another healthcare setting (Agha, 2014).
The Electronic Health Records systems (EHRs) comprise of digitalized patients’ data and information. The EHR contains information about the medical and surgical history of the patient, the diagnosis made at the clinical level, the various treatment prescriptions, patient allergies, the laboratory and radiological patient data and reports and procedures done to the patients. The electronic also contains materials that guide the healthcare providers in making evidence-based clinical decisions on the care of the patient. The electronic data is available to healthcare personnel that is authorized to access the information and the data. The EHR for perioperative clinical setting is comprised of information that relates to the surgical procedures performed on the patient, whereas the EHRs concerning the perioperative clinical setting contains information pertaining the various medications administered to the patient. The data for both the perioperative and the medical-surgical clinical settings contains information pertaining the laboratory data, radiological reports and the previous patients’ medical and surgical history. The electronic health records for the perioperative settings mostly focus on real-time surgical procedures. Also, the guiding material found as part of the electronic health records is mainly in for of video records that show the procedures for surgical operations. On the other hand, the guiding material that provides patient based guidelines on the clinical decisions for the medical-surgical settings are based on the selection of the appropriate drug, based on the laboratory results, the past medical and surgical history of the patient, and the radiological reports that have been made at the counter with the patient (Kain, Vakharia, Garson, Engwall, Schwarzkopf, Gupta, & Cannes son, 2014).
The electronic health records and generally the information technology application in both the medical-surgical and the perioperative clinical settings impact greatly on the safety of the patient. The gathering of information involves data and information on the several healthcare professionals required for the patient care, the supplies and the equipment necessary within the clinical setting, the several drugs required and the process of the various procedures that are undertaken within the clinical setting. The process of providing perioperative care to patients is sophisticated, involves several healthcare workers, requires the use of different and various instruments and needs a strict sterile environment to prevent the infection of the operation site during the surgical operation procedure. Therefore, the information technology employed requires to put into consideration the safety of the patient, given the complicated surgical procedure, and thus should provide clear guidelines on every step involved while operating. The electronic health records should provide information concerning the maintenance of a sterile field in the operating room, providing practical details on how to ensure provision n f barriers between the patient’s operation site and the rest of the external environment. The information provides details of the role of each of the healthcare professions in the provision of the preoperative care since there are numerous categories of healthcare professionals involved in the provision of care within the perioperative clinical setting. Similarly, the information offered at the medical-surgical clinical setting should be detailed in offering guidelines in the choice of the treatment regime, the interpretation of the laboratory and the radiological results and reports. The information also provides guidelines on the procedural steps in making diagnoses, the choice of the treatment and other clinical judgments (Shekelle, Morton, & Keeler, 2006).
The data collected and availed from and to the staff working on the perioperative and medical-surgical care settings serve similar and different purposes in various instances. The information technology applied in the perioperative care setting involves teleconferencing with distant practitioners with the aim of providing guidelines on performing the surgical operation procedures to patients in real time scenarios. On the other hand, the application of the information technology in the medical-surgical setting involves making prescriptions and bookings to the patients through a direct online portal and posting reminders to the patients through the created portal. The perioperative and medical and surgical information technologies can reliably provide billing options for patients, medical expenditures. Additionally, the information technology applied to the two clinical; settings provide information health insurance eligibility and provide precautionary information on the likelihood of the arising of issues on the insurance schemes for the specific patients (Agha, 2014).
In summary, the perioperative and the medical-surgical clinical settings are similar and different at the same time in several ways. The information technology applied to each of the care settings serves specific roles in opening the patient care and involves staff roles management, management of supplies and equipment, and the follow-up care and financial management of healthcare costs.
Agha, L. (2014). The effects of health information technology on the costs and quality of medical care. Journal of health economics, 34, 19-30.
Gordon, C. R., Rezzadeh, K. S., Li, A., Vardanian, A., Zelken, J., Shores, J. T., … & Jarrahy, R. (2015). Digital mobile technology facilitates HIPAA-sensitive perioperative messaging, improves physician-patient communication, and streamlines patient care. Patient safety in surgery, 9(1), 21.