Challenges and barriers that create health inequity

For your final project, review the feedback provided by your instructor and make revisions
accordingly. Integrate the specified aspects from your previous assignments, as directed, to
develop your final Program and Planning Project assignment. Use the guidelines below to
provide a comprehensive overview of your proposed program. The final paper should be
2,000-2,250 words, not counting your references and appendix.

  1. Introduce your proposed program. Include the vison and overreaching goal for the
    program. Discuss the objectives associated with this goal.
  2. Explain the public health issue. Describe the target population affected. Discuss the
    overall challenges and barriers that create health inequity for this population.
  3. Discuss the program model used for your program. Explain why this model is most
    suited for your target population and your proposed program. Use epidemiologic data
    (EBP) to support your proposed topic.
  4. Indicate how the behavioral health theory supports implementation of the program.
    Discuss how these will be strategically applied throughout the steps of implementation.
    How will the theory ultimately assist in reaching the programmatic goal? Provide evidence
    to support your claims.
  5. Describe the necessary stakeholders that need to be involved in order for the
    implementation of this program to be successful. Propose strategies, including approaches
    to communication, to develop community coalitions and engage stakeholders.
  6. Based on your work plan, discuss program strategies and summarize the steps or
    activities associated with each.
  7. Provide your revised program budget, budget proposal, and justification to support your
    outlined intervention. Attach your itemized budget in the appendix.
  8. Describe the outcome and process evaluations used to measure the success of the
    intervention. Include specific indicators and data collection or measurement tools.
    You are required to cite to eight to 10 sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be
    published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public
    health content.

Final Program and Planning Assignment

According to Frieden (2014), the success and survival of interventions or programs implemented
in public health rely mainly on coalitions and the ability of organizations to address areas such as

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innovation that facilitates the development of evidence base for action. These are coupled with
the capability of the organizations involved to resolve technical issues that include high priority
interventions based on evidence, and that may harbor a significant impact. Moreover, the success
of public health programs relies on the management of efficient performance, which involves
thorough and real-time evaluation as well as monitoring of improvements in the interventions
and program. Besides, coalitions and partnerships with different organizations in the private and
public sectors facilitate the attainment of different goals through the inclusion and engagement of
various stakeholders (Bergeron et al. 2017). Ultimately, the actualization of the various
objectives outlined in the public health intervention or program become successful due to an
organization’s dedication to the acquisition of the relevant resources and the promotion of
suitable action plans.
Although most health programs fail to achieve their potential impact, some succeed in the
drastic improvement of health outcomes. More precisely, a health communication intervention
would optimize the enlightenment of individuals at risk of a public health issue and further form
the foundation for influencing the decisions or perceptions made in society. As such, obesity has,
over the past few years, escalated to a significant public health issue that impacts the general
welfare of people in the community by intensifying their vulnerability to chronic illnesses
(Medina-Remón et al., 2017). Nevertheless, the development of a health communication
intervention that optimizes the reduction of obesity incidents would involve engaging the public
and creating awareness on the risk factors associated with the condition and the promotion of
healthy living. Therefore, based on the high incidence of morbidities and mortalities associated
with obesity, this assignment is grounded on the proposal of health communication intervention
aimed at increasing the cognizance of the condition. It further seeks to promote measures that

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reduce its prevalence among adolescents, thereby leading to change in individual actions and the
improvement in their quality of life.
Introduction of the Proposed Program
Based on the risk factors facing obese adolescents, schools, and communities have
increasingly implemented systematic and structured plans aimed at encouraging healthy behavior
among the young generation. Some of the strategies implemented include the advocacy of a
holistic strategy that supports recommended dietary habits and practices across institutional
structures. Nonetheless, the adoption of such an approach necessitates the integration of six
crucial components that focus on the promotion of health within school settings (Van Dongen et
al. 2019). These components include healthy school policies, physical and social environments,
health services, and community links. Additionally, the components integrated into the whole
school approach include a curriculum that offers opportunities for the development of action
competencies and individual health skills.
Nevertheless, the sustainable implementation of such interventions in day-to-day
activities has proven difficult for schools as it leads to limitations in the health behavior and body
mass index of the targeted population. Moreover, the defects in such interventions and health-
promotion initiatives emanate from difficulties embedded in the creation of a sense of
responsibility among the pertinent stakeholders (Van Dongen et al. 2019). They further emanate
from challenges experienced in tailoring intervention strategies across diverse school populations
and real-life contexts. However, one strategy for designing and implementing health promotion
intervention within schools and society, in general, entails a community-based approach.

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Akin to the objectives in this assignment, the community-based approach would lead to
the increment in the involvement of a community that extends beyond schools. It has further
been associated with positive effects that include the reduction of obesity incidence due to
characteristics such as the involvement of multiple stakeholders. The stakeholders involved
enjoy ownership in the designing, evaluation, and implementation processes (Allender et al.
2015). Therefore, the proposed program for this assignment entails a community-based
communication intervention that focuses on the collaboration with public health and educational
The program’s vision entails the creation and development of behavioral and social
change through the emphasis on values, culture, and norms that increase the vulnerability of
adolescents and community members to health conditions associated with obesity. Since the
recognition of the social aspects within a society directly influences the actions and behavior of
the residents, it is crucial to develop a community-wide approach that focuses on collective
change (Allender et al. 2015). As such, the overreaching goals and objectives of the intervention
will include spurring change across the behavioral and social space. These are coupled with the
recreation of a new sense of responsibility among society members to reduce their predisposition
to the public health risk. More precisely, since health communication interventions seek to
influence the behavior of individuals by promoting health promotion initiatives, its application
herein will facilitate the mitigation and prevention of the risk factors associated with obesity.
Similarly, the program will focus on creating awareness and sensitizing society on the various
ways obesity incidence may be mitigated (Van Dongen et al. 2019). As such, it endeavors to
equip the community with adequate and relevant skills that the people could utilize in the
reduction of the susceptibility to morbidity or mortality rates associated with obesity.

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The Public Health Issue and Target Population affected
In the recent past, obesity among adolescents has experienced a significant increase,
thereby making them an essential target population for the mitigation of obese incidents.
Moreover, during this stage of development, adolescents are likely to adopt unhealthy lifestyle
behaviors and further failure to engage in activities that safeguard their welfare. As a result, the
health or otherwise behavior developed during this period persists into adulthood, which further
affects their well-being later in life (Dixon et al. 2015). Individually, the development of obesity
or overweight status at the adolescent stage is considered a significant public health issue that
adversely impacts their overall welfare. Some of the adverse effects associated with adolescent
obesity include the susceptibility to chronic illnesses such as respiratory issues, the development
of type 2 diabetes, and other coronary heart conditions.
According to reports from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), health
inequity among adolescents occurs, as a result, limited access to medical services, stereotypes
associated with overweight children, and failure of the parents to note the increase in weight.
Most fundamentally, health inequity among adolescents emanates from the consideration of an
increase in weight as healthy behavior. Additionally, since obesity is attributed to a combination
of factors that include the family’s genetic history, environmental, and psychological issues,
aspects such as denial, traditional, and regional beliefs impede access to medical services (Center
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2018). These are coupled with peer pressure and
influence that drive teenagers to engage in activities that exacerbate their risk of obesity.
Similarly, an individual’s socioeconomic background plays a critical role in determining their
susceptibility to obesity and further influences their access to medical services. As such, most of
the individuals susceptible to obesity have been found to live in communities that share similar

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characteristics such as environments that impact their behavior and the consequent acceptance of
their situation (Allender et al., 2015). These traits thus impede their access to health services or
participation in physical activities, which eventually leads to health inequity issues.
The Intervention Model used
The community approach is characterized by factors such as the development,
implementation, and evaluation activities. Besides, the creation and establishment of health-
promotion activities through this approach necessitates suitable strategies for boosting the ability
of capacity-building (Bergeron et al. 2017). As such, capacity building in the health
communication intervention approach is best suited for the target population as it supports the
promotion of effective practices that promote health. More precisely, it involves the application
of activities and guidelines for improving health across distinct levels that include the advancing
knowledge and skills of the pertinent stakeholders. These are followed closely by expanding and
supporting infrastructure suitable for the promotion of health across organizations within a
community and establishing cohesiveness in collaborations (Van Dongen et al. 2019). Therefore,
capacity building in the health communication intervention applied herein would facilitate the
acquisition and application of enhanced capabilities that promote health and boost engagement
on interventions informed by evidence.

How the Behavioral Health Theory supports the Implementation of the Program

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In the implementation of a program aimed at promoting health, especially among
adolescents, the behavioral theory optimizes the determination of their actions and behavior by
analyzing actions and their outcome. It thus focuses on the adolescent’s environment and the
learned associations acquired through previous experiences by theorizing that their beliefs about
whether or not they are susceptible to a certain disease or health problem influence their
readiness to take action (Bergeron et al. 2017). As such, during the implementation of health
communication intervention, the behavioral theory will facilitate the identification of the
adolescents’ beliefs and perceptions as well as those of the community members with regards to
their susceptibility to the risk factors associated with obesity.
Moreover, the attainment of these objectives will occur through endeavoring to develop
an in-depth awareness and comprehension of the underlying factors that could impact the health
of the targeted population and the community in general. For instance, in determining whether or
not the targeted population considers itself susceptible to conditions related to obesity, these
factors will be strategically applied through the determination of their preparedness to take
necessary action (Bergeron et al. 2017). Ultimately, the theory will assist in reaching the
programmatic goal by equipping the targeted population and society in general with adequate
and relevant skills that could be utilized in the reduction of their susceptibility towards the
disease-related conditions. Most fundamentally, it will provide realistic communication
objectives towards the initialization of change and the promotion of widespread implementation
of different approaches towards the management of their behavior (Swinburn et al., 2015).

The Necessary Stakeholders that should be involved

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The stakeholders in public health include the individuals or organizations invested in a
particular program and whose interest lies in the outcome of the evaluation. They may also
include the people and organizations with a stake in the activities carried out on the results
obtained from the evaluation. In this case, the key stakeholders involved in the implementation
of the health communication intervention include the targeted population (adolescents with
obesity), management and program staff, partners and coalition members, and funding agencies
(Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2018). Another category of stakeholders that
would be involved in the implementation of the program includes the various advocacy groups,
community members, and the law enforcement agencies as well as public health organizations
within the community.
Nonetheless, the strategies and approaches that would facilitate the development of
community coalitions and the engagement of the stakeholders mentioned herein entail the
adoption of technology. Technology in communication provides a suitable way of reaching out
to the target audience in real-time and receiving feedback as well as tracking the progressive
changes. In this case, different communication strategies are recommendable for mass-reach as
they would facilitate conveying the desired message to the community as a whole (Leeman et al.,
2015: Dixon et al., 2015). More precisely, social media campaigns and adverts on TVs and
Radios would call upon all relevant stakeholders to take part in the reduction of obesity
incidence among teenagers.

Program Strategies and relevant Action Steps

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The main message behind the health communication intervention would entail the
creation of awareness and crucial insights on the risk factors associated with obesity with a
primary emphasis on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle. As such, it would optimize the
advocacy for behavioral change, including the need for the adoption of healthy dietary habits and
engagement in regular physical exercise (Van Dongen et al. 2019). Specifically, the depiction of
youth groups and teenage participants would significantly contribute to the formulation of a
greater initiative towards an increase in the sense of belonging through activities ranging from
the benefits of work-outs to healthy eating habits.
Revised Budget Proposal and Justification
The implementation of the program outlined herein necessitates substantial insight from
health practitioners, counselors, law enforcement agencies, and youth groups, all of who have the
responsibility of reaching out to the overweight and obese population. As such, the development
of prerequisite content for health communication intervention would thus involve advertisements
that target the change in attitudes, behavior, and approaches applied in the reduction of the
population’s vulnerability.
The Outcome and Process Evaluation used to measures the Success of the Intervention
Based on the action-oriented approach applied in the intervention, the evaluation of the
various processes will involve monitoring their capacity-building capability as well as the
implementation of tailored activities. Consequently, the outcome will be used in the attainment
of continued improvement of the various strategies applied in building capacity and the ability of
the stakeholders to make pertinent adjustments, outcomes such as dietary behavior and physical
activity will be reported on an annual basis (Van Dongen et al. 2019). This way, the rates

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indicated on the reports will facilitate adjustments and improvement on the collaboration and
capacity-building strategies applied in the various phases of the implementation process.


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Allender, S., Owen, B., Kuhlberg, J., Lowe, J., Nagorcka-Smith, P., Whelan, J., & Bell, C.
(2015). A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes. PLOS ONE, 10(7),
Bergeron, K., Abdi, S., DeCorby, K., Mensah, G., Rempel, B., & Manson, H. (2017). Theories,
models and frameworks used in capacity building interventions relevant to public health:
a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 17(1). Doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4919-y
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2018, December 6). Program Evaluation
Guide – Step 1 – CDC.
Finding the keys to successful adult-targeted advertisements on obesity prevention: an
experimental audience testing study. BMC Public Health,